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Unformatted text preview: Acids and Bases Some molecules form ions when they are dissolved in water. For example, the HCl molecule comes apart (it dissociates) and produces H + and Cl- . The electron that was normally with the H remains with the Cl. The H now has a positive charge because it no longer has an electron. Similarly, the Cl has a negative charge because it has the electron from the H atom. HCl → H + + Cl- Acids are substances that dissociate to produce hydrogen ions and a negative ion (cation). HCl is therefore an acid. Bases are substances that combine with hydrogen ions, thus lowering the concentration of hydrogen ions. Substances that produce hydroxide ions ( OH- ) are bases because hydroxide ions are capable of combining with hydrogen ions to form water, thus lowering the concentration of hydrogen ions. Bases are therefore proton acceptors. OH- + H + →€ Η 2 Ο When NaOH is dissolved in water, an electron from the sodium atom remains with the OH. This produces a sodium ion (Na + ) and a hydroxide ion (OH- ). NaOH is therefore a base....
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