ch10_Intelligence - Intelligence Intelligence Psychology...

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Unformatted text preview: Intelligence Intelligence Psychology 1107 10/10/11 10/10/11 Intelligence Intelligence Do we all have some in born intellectual Do capacity, or does our environment shape our intelligence? our Huge issue Perhaps a waste of time 10/10/11 A Little History Little Galton Darwin’s cousin Started eugenics ‘Hereditary genius’ Found that genius ran in Found families families Never occurred to him Never that rich families had rich environments! environments! 10/10/11 More Galton More Tested and measured various qualities Set up booths, got people to pay to be Set measured! measured! Found little But, RT does correlate with IQ 10/10/11 Binet Binet Wanted to spot kids Wanted that needed special attention in school attention Well, you have to Well, measure intelligence then then Along with Simon, he Along assumed we all follow the same path, but some kids were slower than others slower 10/10/11 Binet and Simon Binet Not that simon…. Anyway, they Anyway, measured mental age measured Mental aptitude Mental should show up in many ways many Found questions that Found predicted achievement achievement 10/10/11 Terman Terman Stanford-Binet IQ = (Mental age / IQ chronological age) chronological Doesn’t work for Doesn’t adults adults Believed IQ was Believed inherited inherited Racist? Terman’s Termites 10/10/11 What actually is intelligence? What To study something we must know how to To measure it measure ‘I know what it means’ is not good enough ‘Goal directed adaptive behaviour?’ General agreement, but….. Culture Many abilities or one Can you measure it neurologically? 10/10/11 Culture Culture Is intelligence the same here as Is anywhere? anywhere? Some say no and believe a culture free Some intelligence test is impossible intelligence Others believe that general problem Others solving ability is culture free solving Abstract, novel questions Digit spam, stuff like that 10/10/11 General or specific abilities General Me words together put bad paper on and Me spel not good spel However, I am good at other stuff Maybe find out how different abilities are Maybe related to each other related Best way to do this is by collecting a ton of Best data and analyzing it using fancy statistical techniques techniques 10/10/11 Factor analysis Factor Statistical technique Find out what goes with what Spearman thought there was also a Spearman general factor that underlies specific abilities abilities g There may be something to this 10/10/11 Abilities g and everything Abilities So there is something to g Hmmm What about say brain injuries Or savants? Well, intelligence is mental ability What does being able to count the number of What toothpicks from a box have to do with it? toothpicks Indeed, the mental and physical seem to go Indeed, together together Forrest Gump was just a story 10/10/11 More abilities, more factors, more names names Sternberg et al talk about 3 types of Sternberg intelligence intelligence Academic School, IQ tests etc Practical Everyday, ill defined tasks Creative Novel situations 10/10/11 Emotional or social intelligence Emotional You know, like getting along with others Understanding Regulating emotions No mild mood swings, that sort of thing Hmm, umm, well, errr Jury is still out 10/10/11 Neurological measurement of brain size size Brain size? Crazy as it sounds, Crazy there may be something to this something Brain is altered due to Brain experience experience Pretty crude measure Pretty though though 10/10/11 Brain function Brain May be more telling PET scans show that good scores on cognitive PET tasks relate to LESS glucose uptake tasks Higher IQ, faster perceptual processing Related to brain function Why should this have anything at all to do with Why complex tasks? complex Get more stuff in? We are still pretty far awy (?) best bet is still paper We and pencil tests and 10/10/11 Assessing Intelligence Assessing Have to operationally define intelligence So, Intelligence is your score on an IQ test Aptitude tests predict ability to learn new Aptitude skill skill Achievement tests reflect stuff already Achievement learned learned Most good IQ tests do both 10/10/11 Modern IQ tests Modern Wechsler adult Intelligence Scale is pretty Wechsler common common WAIS WISC too 2 scores, verbal and performance, should be scores, close close Modern tests are standardized If you answer the same number of questions correct If as the average person, you are given a score of 100 as 10/10/11 A little bit of statistics little 10/10/11 Just a bit of scary math type stuff Just So, IQ is normally distributed with a mean of 100 So, and a standard deviation of 15 and They (the tests) are constructed that way Test must be reliable and valid Reliability -> stable measurement Test retest Split half Validity -> measure what it is supposed to Predictive Face Criterion related 10/10/11 More testing stuff More Aptitude tests lose some Aptitude predictive ability as time goes by goes Truncated sample Reliability and validity are Reliability measure using a correlation coefficient correlation -1.00 <= r <= +1.00 Sign indicates direction Size indicated by Size absolute value absolute 10/10/11 The extremes of intelligence The The ‘challenged’ IQ < 70 and cannot live independently Most of these folks can, with some Most training, hold down jobs etc training, Down’s syndrome is a big cause Extra chromosome Various levels of retardation Not violent Not communicable! 10/10/11 The extremes The The ‘gifted’ Terman’s Termites again IQ > 150 Better at everything Still, really extreme may MAY have Still, problems problems Should the gifted be tracked? 10/10/11 Creativity Creativity What is it? Dunno How do you measure it Ummm not sure Does it correlate with IQ? Maybe…. 10/10/11 Genetics and environment Genetics Just because something is genetic does Just not make it unchangeable not If something is genetic it is niether right If nor wrong nor Genetics do play a role in IQ Identical twins have the same IQ, indeed, Identical they look like the same person has taken the test! the 10/10/11 Genetics Genetics Even twins raised apart have the same IQ Adopted kids’ IQs do not correlate with their Adopted parents’! parents’! Heritability of IQ is about .50 Environmental effects are there too However, you cannot teach someone However, something that is beyond them something 10/10/11 Group differences Group No doubt they exist Remember, GROUPS not individuals Remember, individual variation greater than Remember, group group Looks aren’t everything Sex differences too spatial/math Verbal ability Emotion detection bias 10/10/11 ...
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