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© LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. IMHOLTZ) MALE REPRODUCTIVE P1 OF 4 The functions of the male reproductive system include: - Production of male gametes ( sperm ) - Synthesis of androgens (male sex hormones) such as testosterone . - Delivery of sperm into the female reproductive tract. The scrotum is a sac of skin and superficial fascia that hangs outside the abdominopelvic cavity at the root of the penis. The paired testes (male gonads or primary sex organs ) are suspended w/i the scrotum, separated by a connective tissue septum. This location provides a temperature 3 C lower than internal body T , which enhances sperm production. The cremaster muscle elevates the testes in response to cold T and lowers them when T rises. The dartos muscle adjusts the scrotal surface area in response to changes in T . The dartos contracts in response to a drop in T . This decreases scrotal surface area and reduces heat loss. The dartos relaxes in response to a rise in T . 2 tunics surround each testis. The tunica vaginalis is the membranous outer layer derived from the parietal peritoneum. The tunica albuginea is the fibrous capsule directly surrounding the testis. The tunica albuginea extends inward to divide the testis into 250 lobules . Each lobule contains 1-4 coiled seminiferous tubules . These are the sites of sperm synthesis. Each seminiferous tubule is surrounded by several layers of myoid cells which contract to propel sperm and testicular fluid out of the testis. Newly made sperm travel from the seminiferous tubules to a tubulus rectus to the rete testis and then on to the epididymis , which is the site of sperm maturation. W/i the connective tissue btwn the seminiferous tubules are interstitial cells which secrete androgens (primarily testosterone) into the local interstitial fluid as well as the blood. Testicular arteries provide O 2 -rich blood to the testes. As they approach the testes, each is surrounded by a pampiniform venous plexus , a network of veins that drain the testis and converge to form the testicular vein . This arrangement allows venous blood to absorb heat from arterial blood and helps to maintain the low scrotal temperature. The nerves, vessels (blood and lymphatic) and vas deferens associated with each testis are wrapped in a CT sheath known as the spermatic cord . Each spermatic cord penetrates the abdominal wall at an inguinal canal . The penis and the scrotum comprise the external genitalia . The penis functions to deliver sperm into the female reproductive tract. It consists of an attached root and a free shaft, which ends in an enlarged tip ( glans penis ). The loose cuff of skin around the glans penis is known as the prepuce / foreskin , and is removed via circumcision . Internally, the penis contains a portion of the urethra (
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course LS 101 taught by Professor Abdul during the Spring '11 term at Montgomery College.

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