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Review LS2

Review LS2 - Review LS2.1 42 Immunology The nonspecific...

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1 Review LS2.1 42 Immunology The nonspecific defenses are the body’s first line of defense because the specific defenses often require days or even weeks to become effective. Nonspecific immune response Target foreign invaders without need to recognize Prevention / Attack Act very rapidly, and include barriers such as the skin , molecules that are toxic to invaders, and phagocytic cells ( phagocytes , such as macrophages ) that ingest invaders. Barriers 1. Physical – Skin – Keratin Membranes of ear, urinary, reproductive, digestive tract, respiratory pathway, eye (cornea/fibrous layer) 2. Chemical – Secretions – Sebum (sebaceous), lysozymes (mucous which attacks the cell walls of many bacteria, causing them to lyse), defensins (mucous - are toxic to a wide range of pathogens. insert themselves into the plasma membranes of organisms and make the membranes permeable, thus killing the invaders; also produced in phagocytes) Multipotent hematopoetic stem cells in the bone marrow can differentiate into red blood cells, platelets, and the various types of white blood cells: (Leukocytes) Granular Neutrophil ( nonspec. imm .)– phagocytic (roam and patrol out and in blood vessel, engulf and destroy) o Cytokines- o Vasodilators- o Chemotaxins- o Phagocytosis – Intracellular destruction (vs MAC extracellular) • Attachment (Endo) + Optimization • Internalization (phagosome) • Degradation (phagolysosome) • Elimination (Exo) Mast Cell (not in blood) in conn tissue – histamine, etc Agranular – [lymphocyte are not phagocytic] B Lymphocytes (mature in the bone marrow)( specific immunity role) secrete antibodies = The Humoral Immune Response T Lymphocytes (mature in the thymus) Monocyte Macrophage Natural Killer Cells 3. Reflexes - cough/sneeze
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2 4. Inflammation Seq. of events : – Phagocytosis and recruitment (10) – Vasodilation (histamine) and increase in permeability – Phagocytic cells migration (Margination & Diapedesis) (12) – Tissue repair Specific immune response Can make an antibody protein that will recognize, bind to, and aid in the destruction of a certain virus if that virus ever enters the bloodstream. These systems recognize specific configurations of atoms in a molecule and are typically slow to develop and long-lasting. Cytotoxic T cells specific immunity targeted to specific pathogens and intracellular viruses. They use perforin that makes holes and granzymes that induce apoptosis . They use these two mechanisms, cell lysis and programmed cell death, in concert to eliminate the antigen-containing host cell. Activated by macrophage. FAS protein involved in binding to target cells. The complement system ( extracellular destruction) Use the protein membrane attack complex . This system can be activated by various mechanisms, including both nonspecific and specific defense responses for extracellular destruction. The complement system uses the complex cascade of protein activation in order to poke a pore. This is a transmembrane channel in the bacterial cell
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Review LS2 - Review LS2.1 42 Immunology The nonspecific...

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