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Michael Short Geo Final Review Sheet

Michael Short Geo Final Review Sheet - FINAL REVIEW SHEET...

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FINAL REVIEW SHEET Top energy consumers by country total and per capita United States China Location of World Proven Oil & Coal Reserves Oil=Middle East/South and Central America Coal=Europe Eurasia/Asia A Crisis of Oil Supply on the Horizon? Thought that peak oil use in 2050 Could run out between 2090 and 2100 Environmental Impacts of Oil Recovery Physical Infrastructure Land Subsidence Leakage Transport Oil spills (Exxon Valdez) Water pollution Usage Air Pollutants GHG Emissions Exxon Valdez Oil Spill (1989) Damaged Alaskan coast Ruined Ecosystem Killed fish and crab damaged economy How Coal is formed (peat bogs) Peat Bogs Organic Material covered w/Rock Compressed and heated over time So much so that turns to coal Coal in the USA (Electricity) Coal accounts for 50% of electricity U.S. Coal has low sulfur amounts Coal is Classified by its Energy and Sulfur content Dirty/Clean dependant on sulfur content Environmental Impacts of Coal Strip mining Changes environmental structure 50% of U.S. coal from strip mining Acid Mine Drainage Drainage pollutants gets into stream As well as water source Acid Rain Biggest problem in East Europe/U.S Destroys forest, relics Air Pollution Large amounts of air pollution SO2, CO2, NO2 Natural Gas Mostly Refers to Methane Gas found Underground Pipelines or liquefied NG Liquefied by cooling Russia, US, Canada 3 biggest producers U.S. Reserves 88-118 years of gas left Over 50% of world Reserves in Russia/Middle East Oil and NG tend to be found together Global gas trade movements Russia to Europe, CAN to US Xinjiang and China relations and Natural Gas China and Xinjiang also source of NG (????????????????????) Environmental Impacts of natural gas compared to coal Extraction Infrastructure, Pipelines Methane Released w/o burning Use Far lower amounts of SO2 and NO2 Much Less Particulate matter than coal or oil Cleanest major fossil fuel T. Boone Pickens Advocate of natural gas Top two countries who get electricity from nuclear power France and Ukraine China rapidly expanding nuclear capacity
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Three Mile Island Accident (1979) Pennsylvania Reactor Meltdown Chernobyl Nuclear Accident (1986) Russian Meltdown caused death/cancer Worst nuclear plant accident in history Yucca Mountain (Nevada) Nuclear Waste Storage Chosen as U.S. Nuclear waste repository two decades age Big political problem Hasn’t yet been used Top Hydroelectricity producers (by total and by total of electricity production) Build Dam, Create resevoir, turbines
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