AnatomyNotes_Test4

AnatomyNotes_Test4 - Anatomy Test 4 - Nervous system...

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Anatomy Test 4 - Nervous system Function of the nervous system 1) perceives changes in the environment (internal/external) 2. conveys this information to the CNS 3. integrates, analysis, or stores this info w/in the CNS 4. initiates and coordinates a response to the information 3 Functional components to nervous system: -sensory - in toward CNS- how warm, pain, hungry, information in -integration -motor Nervous tissue = (cells) neurons + neuroglia nervous tissue forms (organs) CNS - Brain/ spinal cord PNS - cranial nerves/spinal nerves/sensory receptors/ganglia CNS - integrating information info in sending info out located centrally brain + spinal cord housed in cavities cranial + spinal cavity PNS - cranial nerves -12 pairs spinal nerves - 31 pairs receptors - tiny organs - specific to types of sensation photoreceptors, chemoreceptors ganglia- structures/ organ house 2 neurons come together in cell body sensitive to changes CNS in coming - sensory information - afferent division - ascending pathway outgoing - efferent- descending pathway - motor commands SAME sensory afferent motor efferent Sensory division - afferent from organs, or body wall somatic sensory - skin, muscles, joints, bone tickles, slaps, step on nail, position of body in space visceral sensory - gas pains, hunger, nausea, pain in organs not conscious of --BP, PH receptors checking + regulating Motor division -- efferent somatic motor - skeletal muscle only synapse w/ skeletal muscle visceral motor - involuntary warm--sweat autonomic nervous system 1. sympathetic division
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"fight or flight" those responses that stressed or frightened ready to fight HR inc, blood to muscles, pupil enlarges salivary glands- stop secreting --dry mouth of speech 2. parasympathetic division rest + digest salivating pupils constrict antagonist systems in general somatic - neurons directly to muscles autonomic - cardiac, smooth, glands, adipocytes cardiac + smooth--visceral muscle effectors end organ- end destination of neuron neurons 1. impulse transmitting cells 2. high metabolic rate (great need for O2 and glucose) 3. cells cannot divide (stem cells until age 4) 4. transmitting "axons" found in bundles (nerves) 5. extreme longevity (100 + years) 6. structure a) dendrite (receptive portion of neuron) sends signal towards cell body b) cell body (soma) c) axons/nerve fibers (conductive process) sends signal away from body d) synaptic knobs (release neurotransmitter PICTURE dendrite Æ soma Æ axon Æ synaptic knobs Æ out neuron Æ neuron neuron Æ effectors grey in color Types of neurons structural difference in neurons : look different a) multipolar neurons most common 99% most carry motor impulses/interneurons b) unipolar cell body sits off to side most carry sensory impulses
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dendrites and axon act as one "pole" c) bipolar neurons found in special sense organs -eyes d) anaxonic neurons star like (no obvious anatomical axon) located in central nervous tissue and in special sense organs Neuroglia "nerve glue"
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AnatomyNotes_Test4 - Anatomy Test 4 - Nervous system...

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