TUMOURS OF THE HEAD AND NECK

TUMOURS OF THE HEAD AND NECK - Tumours of the head and neck...

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Tumours of the head and neck
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Introduction Head and neck cancer is remarkable for its ability to cause extensive local tissue destruction and regional node involvement in the absence of distant metastasis
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Introduction Tumours are usually confined to the primary sites Regional nodes & haematogenous metastasis are very rare and late in the disease process Loco-regional treatment by either surgery, radiotherapy or combination of the two is frequently curative
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Introduction Many of the oral lesions may have had an initial lesion that were potentially curable. The cure could be predicted if the lesion is diagnosed early and the appropriate therapy is given before the disease reaches advance stages to become incurable
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Introduction Cancer of the oral cavity in Saudi Arabia is not an uncommon disease It account for more than 25% of all malignancies, in the Southern region, it might reach up to 35% In males, it is third in frequency following lung and prostate cancer In females, it is second following breast cancer
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Introduction The spectrum of malignant tumours to affect the oral cavity vary widely and includes: Surface epithelium Squamous cell carcinoma over 90% Glandular epithelium Adenocarcinomas in females Mucoepidermoid carcinomas in males Mesenchymal tissues Lymphomas, Sarcomas are very rare
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Introduction Surface Epithelium 1- Squamous cell Carcinoma Undifferentiated carcinoma Differentiated carcinoma Adenoid squamous carcinoma Verrucous carcinoma 2- Basal cell carcinoma 3- Malignant Melanoma
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Introduction Glandular epithelium 1- Adenocarcinoma 2- Mucoepidermoid carcinoma 3- Adenoid cystic carcinoma 4- Acinic cell carcinoma 5- Undifferentiated carcinoma
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Introduction Mesenchymal tissues 1. Sarcoma Fibrosarcoma Rhadomyosarcoma Osteogenic sarcoma Chondrosarcoma Neurogenic sarcoma Angiosarcoma Synovial cell sarcoma 1. Hodgkin’s & non-Hodgkin’s lymphomas 2. Plasmacytoma & multiple myeloma 3. Leukaemia Metastatic carcinoma, sarcoma
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Introduction Prognostic Indicators : Sex: Poor prognosis in females T stage Number of histologically positive nodes Surgical margin status Type of therapy and blood transfusion
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Introduction Aetiology: Smoking Alcohol consumption They have synergistic role Burning tar gives off a variety of active substances e.g. benzopyrene, methyl cholanthrine, which will be broken by arylhydrocarbon hydroxylase into epoxide , carcinogen, that bind to the DNA Snuff dipping and Shama user
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Introduction Aetiology Chronic irritation from sharp jagged teeth Chemicals: Asbestos, Nickel-Chromate, in nasal and paranasal sinuses tumours Wood dust in Adenocarcinoma of the nose Dietary factors: Vitamin A deficiency Vitamin B deficiency, Patereson-Kelly syndrome Radiation exposure Viruses : Human Papilloma Virus HPV Epstein-Barr Virus EBV Human Immunodeficiency Virus HIV Hepatitis virus
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course PDBIO 220 taught by Professor Tomco during the Winter '09 term at BYU.

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TUMOURS OF THE HEAD AND NECK - Tumours of the head and neck...

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