Vascular Anomalies presentation

Vascular Anomalies presentation - Vascular Anomalies -A...

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Unformatted text preview: Vascular Anomalies -A Review Division of Oral and Maxillofacial Surgery College of Dentistry King Saud University. Introduction : Vascular anomalies Vascular lesions in the head and neck region can result in significant cosmetic problems for the patient, and some may lead to even serious life threatening hemorrhage. Vascular anomalies In the past, there has been confusion regarding the proper nomenclature for vascular lesions. In 1982, Mulliken and Glowacki biologically classified the vascular anomalies of the maxillofacial region based on their clinical behavior and endothelial cell characteristics into two groups: hemangiomas and vascular malformations. Hemangiomas Hemangiomas, are the most common tumors of the head and neck in infancy and childhood, comprising approximately 7% of all benign soft tissue tumors . Development : Hemangiomas The hemangioma is a true vascular tumor that results from a overgrowth of normal vascular tissue . It exhibits relatively rapid early growth until approximately 6 to 8 months of age (proliferative phase), followed by regression by 5 to 9 years of age (involutory phase). It grows by endothelial proliferation. During the rapid growth phase, an increased number of mast cells is seen within the endothelial wall. Development : Hemangiomas The majority of the hemangiomas in infants are noted by the parent within the first month of life. Hemangiomas are initially noticed as an erythematous, macular patch, which progresses through a rapid proliferative phase whereby it changes its color and grows faster than the commensurate growth of the child. By the time the patient is 12 months of age most hemangiomas have shown signs of involution. The process of involution is normally slow and will not be completed until the age of 5 to 9 years. Clinical presentation : Hemangiomas Hemangiomas are found in the superficial tissue , the deep tissue , or both and may affect organ systems such as the liver, lung, spleen, and gastrointestinal tract. Most superficial hemangiomas can be diagnosed by clinical examination and a detailed and accurate history. Clinical presentation : Hemangiomas Deep hemangiomas involve muscle or visceral organs and, are more difficult to diagnose. Therefore, further diagnostic studies are required. Intra-osseous hemangiomas are extremely rare. However the soft tissue lesion may deform the underlying skeleton. The predilection for females is approximately a 3 :1 ratio. Clinical presentation : Hemangiomas On examination, the superficial hemangioma usually consists of a raised, reddish to purple tumor with a distinct margin. In contrast, deep subcutaneous hemangiomas often have a deep bluish hue with normal overlying skin, making diagnosis more difficult....
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Vascular Anomalies presentation - Vascular Anomalies -A...

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