7 - Skull, Brain, CN Grays

7 - Skull, Brain, CN Grays - Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves

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Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves streetanatomy.com www.uberreview.com
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Skull Part of Axial Skeleton Cranial bones = cranium Enclose and protect brain Attachment for head + neck muscles Facial bones =framework of face Form cavities for sense organs Opening for air + food passage Hold teeth Anchor face muscles pg 800
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Cranial and Facial Bones Cranial - 8 Frontal Occipital Sphenoid Ethmoid Parietal (2) Temporal (2) Facial – 14 Mandible Maxilla (2) Zygomatic (2) Nasal (2) Lacrimal (2) Palatine (2) Vomer Inf. Nasal Conchae(2)
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Bones of Skull Flat bones: thin, flattened, some curve Sutures: immovable joints joining bones Calvaria = Skullcap =Vault Superior, Lateral, Posterior part of skull Floor = Base Inferior part of skull 85 openings in skull Spinal cord, blood vessels, nerves Foramina, meatus, canal, fissure, notch pg 818 pg 825
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Cranial Fossae Created by bony ridges Supports, encircles brain 3 Fossae Anterior Middle Posterior All the bones visible from this view are the cranial bones!! pg 825
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Other Cavities of Skull Orbits Nasal Cavity Middle Ear Inner Ear pg 904 pg 813
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Skull through Life Ossifies late in 2 nd month of development Frontal + Mandible start as 2 halves-then fuse Growth of Skull ½ adult size by age 9 months ¾ adult size by 2 years 100% adult size by 8-9 years Face enlarges between ages 6-13 years
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Fetal Skull Skull bones separated by unossified membranes = Fontanels Allow compression of skull during delivery Allows rapid growth of brain Mostly replaced w/bone after 1 st year www.aafp.org
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4 Parts Cerebrum * Diencephalon Brain Stem Midbrain Pons Medulla Cerebellum Gray matter surrounded by White matter w/outer cortex of gray matter *some texts consider this part of brain stem The Brain Pg 836
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Meninges: 3 membranes around brain and spinal cord Made of Connective tissue Functions Cover, Protect CNS Enclose, protect blood vessels supplying CNS Contain CSF 3 Layers Dura Mater (external) Arachnoid Mater (middle) Pia Mater (internal) pg 833
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Meninges (continued) Dura mater Strongest, 2 Layers, Fibrous Connective Tissue Periosteal layer (Periosteum): External/superficial layer Meningeal layer: Internal/deep layer Layers fused except around dural sinuses (venous blood filled internal jugular vein) pg 818
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Extensions of Dura Mater Partitions: limit movement of brain Falx Cerebri –vertical, between cerebral hemispheres Falx Cerebelli -vertical, between cerebellar hemispheres Tentorium Cerebelli –horizontal, between cerebrum and cerebellum pg 831
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Meninges Arachnoid Mater Middle layer Subarachnoid Space -between arachnoid mater and pia mater (contains most of CSF, blood vessels) Arachnoid Villi (Granulations)- projections of arachnoid mater through dura into superior sagittal sinus, act as valves to help CSF pass into dural sinuses pg 833
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7 - Skull, Brain, CN Grays - Skull, Brain and Cranial Nerves

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