12 - Lower extremity Grays

12 - Lower extremity Grays - The Lower Limb Pelvis, Thigh,...

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The Lower Limb Pelvis, Thigh, Leg and Foot
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Surface Anatomy Gluteal region / posterior pelvis Iliac crest Gluteus maximus Cheeks Natal/gluteal cleft Vertical midline; “Crack” Gluteal folds Bottom of cheek; “prominence” pg 513
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Surface Anatomy Anterior thigh and leg Palpate Patella Condyles of femur Femoral Triangle Boundaries: Sartorius (lateral) Adductor longus (medial) Inguinal ligament (superior) Contents: Femoral artery, vein and nerve, lymph nodes pg 630
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Surface Anatomy Posterior leg Popliteal fossa Diamond-shape fossa behind knee Boundaries Biceps femoris (superior-lateral) Semitendinosis and semimembranosis (superior-medial) Gastrocnemius heads (inferior) Contents Popliteal artery and vein Calcaneal (Achilles) tendon pg 632
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Surface Anatomy Anterior leg bones Tibia Tibial tuberosity Anterior crest Medial surface Medial malleolus Fibula Lateral malleolus pg 587
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Bones of the Lower Limb Function: Carry weight of entire erect body Support Locomotion Points for muscular attachments Components: Thigh Femur Knee Patella Leg Tibia (medial) Fibula (lateral) Foot Tarsals (7) Metatarsals (5) Phalanges (14) pg 517
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Thigh Femur Largest, longest, strongest bone in the body!! Receives a lot of stress Courses medially More in women! Articulates with acetabulum proximally Articulates with tibia and patella distally pg 557
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Knee Patella Triangular sesamoid bone Protects knee joint Improves leverage of thigh muscles acting across the knee pg 584
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Leg Tibia Receives the weight of body from femur and transmits to foot Second to femur in size and weight Articulates with fibula proximally and distally Interosseous membrane Fibula Does NOT bear weight Muscle attachment Not part of knee joint Stabilize ankle joint pg 587
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Foot Function: Supports the weight of the body Act as a lever to propel the body forward Parts: Tarsals Talus = ankle Between tibia and fibula Articulates with both Calcaneus = heel Attachment for Calcaneal tendon Carries talus Metatarsals Phalanges pg 601
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Foot 3 arches Medial Lateral Transverse Has tendons that run inferior to foot bones Help support arches of foot Longitudinal pg 614
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Joints of Lower Limb Hip (femur + acetabulum) Ball + socket Multiaxial Synovial Knee (femur + tibia) Hinge (modified) Biaxial Synovial Contains menisci, bursa, many ligaments Knee (femur + patella) Plane Gliding of patella Synovial pg 517
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Joints of Lower Limb Proximal Tibia + Fibula
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12 - Lower extremity Grays - The Lower Limb Pelvis, Thigh,...

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