PSY 101 Lecture 10-28-11(1)-1

PSY 101 Lecture 10-28-11(1)-1 - ,direct,and (physicaland...

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Motivation  – all processes that start, direct, and  sustain goal-directed behavior (physical and  psychological activities) Motives  - the “ why  of behavior—what makes  people act we display motivated behavior whenever we                         work to accomplish a goal
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Basic biological needs motivate much of our  behavior. Learning and experience influence how we satisfy  our needs 
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instincts and   drives  – programmed tendencies  that are essential for the survival of a species   instinctive behaviors— fixed inborn patterns of  response that are specific to members of a particular  species 
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instinct theory —behavior is motivated by  instincts do instincts motivate human behavior? Freud -  human behavior is motivated primarily  by sexual and aggressive instincts
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drive theory —behavior is motivated by drives  that arise from biological  needs  that demand  satisfaction need:  a state of deprivation or deficiency drive:  a state of bodily tension—hunger or thirst—that  arises from an unmet need drive theory is based on  homeostasis a tendency of the body to maintain a steady internal  state
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Drives – internal states that arise in response to  an animal’s physiological needs Hull’s Drive theory
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Drives are aroused by an unmet need. This deprivation creates tension. We engage in efforts to reduce tension. Restore homeostasis 
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some needs have a psychological basis  e.g., friendship or achievement Two psychological factors in motivation:   (1) incentives (external stimuli that do not relate directly to  biological needs) (2) social motives
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incentive   theory —our attraction to particular goals  or objects motivates much of our behavior incentives   are rewards or other stimuli that motivates to  act. They can satisfy a need or are in itself desirable.
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