Christianity essay-1

Christianity essay-1 - regard the sacraments :tions...

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Unformatted text preview: regard the sacraments :tions commanded by lie of what he has done mark impormnt life )minations hold different fiber of sacraments, but least two sacraments— eir worship. ich people become hurches, baptism in- son. Other churches e person completely tize infants. Others, in- atism should not occur nake a personal com- aelieve that Jesus set an 1 he asked the Jewish rtize him. ' Communion, the Lord's ed on the Last Supper, 35. During Communion, fine that have been con» Some Christians he- 'ually become the body believe they are sym» and death. )x believers regard five is. Catholics call them called reconciliation), 7e, and anointing of the call them the mysteries 'ation, marriage, and Ihurches administer ,ptisrn to grant the bap» the church. Catholics and usually administer ea voluntary commit rament of penance their sins to a priest and rfthe clergy and mar- articular role in adult holy unctlonl, a priest ints them with holy oil. ar churches are called arn Orthodox, and e called liturgical follows an elaborate tism is an important Chris» ceremony that marks a on's admission into the stian faith. in this photo- ill, a priest baptizes an in‘ by sprinkling water on the 1'5 head. Some churches tice adult baptism set form. Most Christian worship includes Bible read- ings, prayers, and sermons. Clergy often base their ser< mons on readings from the Bible and attempt to explain how the Bible relates to everyday iiie. Christian worship services usualiytake place on Sun* day morning but may occur at other times. Christmas“ the celebration on December 25 of Jesus's birth—and Easter—the celebration in March orApril ofJesus's Res- urrection—arethe most important Christian holy days. Other holy days include All Saints’ Day, Epiphany, and Pentecost. Pentecost, which celebrates the gift of the Holy Spirit to the church, marks the end ofthe Sliday observance of Easter. Epiphany, in early January, cele- brates the visit ofthe Magi (wise men] to the baby Jesus. Eastern Orthodox believers celebrate Jesus’s baptism on this day. Many churches foliow a cycle known as the liturgical yeah it begins with Advent, a period of waiting for Je- sus's birth that starts four Sundays before Christmas. An» other important time in the liturgical year is Lent, a peri- od that begins on Ash Wednesday and lasts 40 days until Easter. Lent is a time for reflection and repentance. Many Christians observe Lent by giving up something they enioy or performing good works. History Origins. Christianity began in Judea, a country in what is now lsrael. Jesus was born there probably in or a few years before 4 B.C The Gospels contain stories about his birth in the city of Bethlehem. His parents, Mary and Joseph, were Jews who lived in the city of Nazareth. Christians call Mary the Virgin Mary. Many be- lieve Jesus's birth fulfilled a prophecy that a virgin would give birth to the Messiah, a Hebrew word meaning the anointedone Jesus began his public ministry in Galilee, north of Judea, when he was in his early 30’s. According to the CospelsJesus arm-acted disciples by preaching, performing miracles, and criticizing the Jew- ish authorities. Jesus preached about the coming of the Kingdom of God, a time of eternal justice and peace. His disciples believed him the chosen messenger of God. in Greek, he was called the Christ, a translation of messiah. The Romans, who governed Judea, executed Jesus about AD. 30. Later, his followers found his tomb empty In: Vision shire Gussll 510-1 52». a fresco byme School or Raphael: Vatican Palace. variant Gly lSealaJAn Resource» Christianity 523 Constantine the Great was the first Roman emperorto become a Grristian. Accord- ing to one story, Constantine had a vision before an impor- tant battle that promised him .victory if he would fight under the Christian sign of the cross. Constantine won the battle and became a strong support- er of Christianity. and believed Jesus had risen from the dead. According to the Gospels, the book of Acts, and the letters of the apestle Paul, Jesus appeared on Earth a number oftimes after his death. His disciples regarded him as the Son of God and began to preach his message of salvation. The early church. Jesus's disciples quickly spread his teachings throughoutthe Roman Empire, and con- verts organized churches. The book of Acts and letters written by the apostle Paul indicate that churches were founded in many cities, including Rome; Ephesus, Syria; and Corinth and Thessaloniki, Greece. As their message spread, the apostles had to determine whether they were teaching a new form of Judaism or a new religion. They decided that Christians were not a separate peo~ ple, like the Jews, but believers in a religion intended for all. The word catholic-means universal or including all. The first Christians believed that Jesus would return soon, though they could not know when. They refused to honor Roman gods, which the Romans believed could anger the gods and thus endanger the empire. Some Roman emperors had early Christians arrested, imprisoned, and even killed. Some Christians welcomed the chance to become marg/rsiindlviduals who suffered or died for their faith}. During the first century A.D., Christianity spread rapid- ly throughout the Mediterranean region. Several cities became especially important to Christians. including Alexandria, Egypt; Antioch, in present-day Turkey: Jerusalem, in presentday Israel; and Rome. During the 1005 to 200’s, leading priests in these and other cities began using the title of bishop, which indicated their au~ thority over area churches. Deacons assisted in worship and were responsible for the care ofthe poor. This threefold ministry of bishop, priest, and deacon provid- ed a model for later Christian communities. Most early Christians accepted the books of the Jew- ish Bible as inspired by God and made them part ofthe Christian Bible. They also added their own writings to the canon—that is, the official list of books ofthe Bible. in addition to the four Gospels, some early Christians wrote stories that presented different views of Jesus. Most Christians eventually rejected these stories. The process of developing the canon went on for centuries. Constantine. The reign of the Roman Emperor Con« 524 Christianity stantine, from 312 to 337, was an important time for the early church. By then, Christianity had spread widely throughout the Roman Empire. As emperor, Constantine legalized the religion, favored and supported Christians, and eventually converted to Christianity himself. Constantine was disturbed by stories of violent argu- ments about basic Christian doctrines. He called the Christian bishops to Nicaea lnow lznik in northwest Turkey] to settle such fundamental questions as the na- ture of Christ In 325, the Council of Nicaea drew up the earliest version of what is now called the Nicene Creed. The creed affirmed that Jesus Christ was divine, "being of one substance with the Faflrer.” In 330, Constantine founded a new capital of the Roe man Empire at Byzantium, later renamed Constantinople lnow Istanbul, Turkey). The city became a center of reli- gious power that rivaled Rome. The bishop of Constan- tinople became the most influential representative of the mainly Greek-speaking Christians in the eastern part of the empire. The pope continued to exercise influence over the mainly Latin-speaking Christians in the west The Roman Empire splits. In 395,1he Roman Empire split into the West Roman Empire and the East Roman Empire, also called the Byzantine Empire. Churches in the Byzantine Empire, based in Constantinople, contin- ued to develop their own Greek-speaking culture. They eventually became known as the Eastern Orthodox Churches. Missionaries from Constantinople establishEd churches in much of eastern Europe, especially Russia. In the 200’s, Germanic tribes had begun invading Italy from the north. Rome's civil government broke down, and a Germanictribe called the Visigoths sacked the city in 410. In 476,6ermanic forces led by the general Odoacer overthrew the last emperor of the West Roman Empire. In thochaos that followed, the only power capa- ble of restoring order was the church. The pope, a well» respected leader, took over many responsibilities which the civil leaders could no longer carry out. The medieval church. In the Middle Ages, from about the 4005 to about 1500, the church gained enor- mous influence in all areas of European life. Under the leadership of the popes in Rome, Christianity had spread through most of western and central Europe by the 800’s, and north into Scandinavia by the mid-1000‘s. Meanwhile, missionaries from Constantinople founded churches in much of eastern Europe, including Russia. As Christianity expanded, the church acquired wealth. Thousands of churches, including grand cathedrals, were constructed throughout Europe. Gothic~style cathedrals in such cities as Chartres, France, and Canter- bury, England, became great monuments of architec- ture. Because the pope had become such a powerful figure, frequent arguments broke out between the church and civil rulers in western Europe. Relations between the Eastern Orthodox and Western churches grew tense. In 1054, the leaders of the two branches ceased to recognize each other as fellow Christians The Western church, under the authority of the pope, became know as the Catholic, or Roman Catholic, Church. From the late 1000’s to the 1500's, European church pire in the 6005. The Crusades had some temporary suc» cess. However, the Muslims eventually defeated and ex— pelled the Europeans who had invaded the Middle East The monastery became an important Christian institu- tion in Europe during the Middle Ages. Many early Christians had withdrawn from the world to live alone in remote regions and devote themselves to God. Some leaders drew up monastic rules—that is, sets of guide lines byrwhich individuals could live together in isolated communities to pray and do God's work. The rules writ- ten in the 300’s by Saint Basil, the bishop of Caesarea lnow Kayseri, Turkey), were the most influential in the Eastern Orthodox Churches. In about 540, the Italian monk Saint Benedict of Nursia drew up a rule that be came the foundation of Western monasticism. During the 1200's, Saint Francis of Assisi, in Italy, and a Spanish monk named Saint Dominic founded the Franciscan and Dominican orders lreligious communities). Members of these orders devoted themselves to preaching and to caring for people's spiritual needs. The Reformation. By the early 1500's, many Euro- pean Christians believed that the church was in need of major reform. Some, like the Dutch priest Desiderlus Erasmus, thought many of the clergy had become cor- rupt Others sought to reform church doctrines. Several reform movements developed, including Lutheranism, the Reformed tradition, the Radical Reformation, and the Church of England. These movements called for a return to a Christianity based more closely on the Bible. To- gether, they became known as the Protestant Reforma» tion, because they were based on protests against Catholic practices and teachings. Lutheranism, Martin Luther, a German theologian, disagreed with Catholic beliefs about the role ofthe church in salvation. In 1517, Luther openly defied church leaders teachings about indulgence; certificates sold Detail oi a fresco h 25ml by Bruno In the Church of Saint Planers, Assisi, Italy WW1 Resource] leaders launched a series of religious wars called the Crusades. The original goal was In reconquer Palestine, which Muslim Arabs had taken from the Byzantine Em- Salnt Francis of Assisi founded the Franciscans, an influential Roman Catholic religious order, in the early 1200's. In this fresco, Francis and his followers kneel before Pope Innocent III. throughout Europe in part] ing of St Peter's Basilica in i that buying indulgences co of the penalty for their sins. grace, and not merit earner tions of the church, could s, backing from powerful Ger ly formed an independent c from the errors of Catholici: throughout northern Europ 7719 Reformed tradition c where the religious reforms John Calvin expanded on Lu Calvin caEled for reforming i God’s law, as expressed in tl churches of religious image standing of predestinarr'on tl the beginning of time who 1 would be damned. The Ref: Switzerland to England, Frat lands, and Scotland. The Radical Reformation small groups ofChristians n formers began springing up tists and limited baptism to l fess theirfaith. They also bel follow Jesus‘s teachings liter Bible, Jesus tells his followei meaning that they should nc ed. Thus, most Anabaptiss r Anabaptists were strongest I lands, and southern German The Church ofEng/ana'w; by the English Parliament Ki: came angry when the pope | marriage to Catherine of Ara pass a series of laws denying England and making Henry I Church of England. The Angl veloped from the Church of The Counter Reformath with some reformers that pri church. However, they denie Catholic doctrines, Their rear formation became known as also called the Catholic Refer A leading force in the Cou Society of Jesus, also known Ish soldier named Ignatius l..( 1534. The Jesuits fought Protr ing and education Along wit the Dominicans and the Fran spread Christianity in the vast lished by France, Portugal, ar From 1545 to 1563, Catholii Council of Trent ended many council also provided for bet and officially denied many Pri 11m 1600‘s and 1700‘s. Aft gles between Catholics and F rind of conflict In Europe. Tht 1648}, actually a series of war: between Catholics and Protes Empire. Eventually, most of El in in June 2004, the Conservatives i the Liberals. They remained the :he House ofCommons until their ‘ ction. Sm Falten Alliance; Progressive Conserva. :‘cmslantlne, KAHN stuhn not] or kawn Stan WEN . ipop. 465,021), is a trading center in Algeria about 50 smiles (80 kilometers] from the Mediterranean Sea. See ifigment: lmap]. It lies on a diff above the Rhumel River. 'gaiiroads link Constantine, a grain shipping point, with me nearby ports of Skikda and Annaba. Constantine was "med forthe Roman emperor Constantine the Great. He rebuilt it in AD. 313 on the site of Cirta, a city that was destroyed by war. After hundreds of years of Arab, ‘ erber, and Turkish rule, Constantine was captured by 'i rance in 1837. France held it until 1962, when Algeria gained independence. KennethJ.Perkins constantlne I, KAHN stuhn TEEN or KAHN stuhn va a 1368—1923), of Greece was king from 1913 to 1917 and from 1920 to 1922. He succeeded his father, George I, who was assassinated. During World War 1 (1914-1918), .7 Constantine promoted Greek neutrality. But the Greek I0! is the result ofjoining two or and combining their school pop“ rnerally used in rural or suburbs}. are adequate school facilities in lation is scattered led to the con lent school districts in many pa t 1is ensures a varied curriculum :1 teachers. Donaid H. Eichhnm ‘or sound which in speech re 2 breath by the tongue, teeth, or 7 is of sounds. The open sounds m lled vowels.The closed sounds made with the breath wholly or *d consonants require complete ' .They are 17,119, lop, and tom- only partial stoppage of breath. lCl y. The spirantsare open conso- on in the oral passages. They are irant, or breathed, consonant i; Vowel. Susan NL Cass :onsort; Queen. 'IHR uh see, is an agreement be- iple to do something againstthe ' inspire with oneself. it is usually ianned act actually be commit- i e defrauded or iniured. The act . v s a crime. Each person involved iinally responsible for every er it was intended or not. Con- fines or imprisonment IHOss of ‘53 a conspiracy, murder may be d’état George T, Felkenes 5-1837), ranks with J. M. W. Turn 1 landscape painter of the 18005. ~in for his paintings of the rural 'and in other parts of eastern v. [11916, Venizelos began a revolutionary movement that me Allies supported. Constantine was forced to leave éGreece, which entered the war on the Allies' side. His second son, Alexander I, became king. Alexander died in 1920, and the people voted to restore Constantine to methrone. in 1921, Greece went to war against the Qt» toman Empire. Greece was defeated, and in 1922, the .éGreek military forced Constantine to give up the throne. His oldest son, George ii, became king. Constantine was V born on Aug. 2, 1668, in Athens. He died on Jan. 1 1, 1923. ’ t See also Greece (History). iohn A. Koumoulides Constantine ll, KAHN sruhn flavor KAHN stuhn new (1940- l, of Greece was king from 1964 to 1973. He succeeded his father, Paul 1. Constantine began his reign with much support from the Greek people. But conflict soon arose between him and Prime Minister George Pa» pandreou over the extent of royal power, including con» trul of the military. The king manipulated Fapandreou into resigning in 1965, During the next two years, Greece experienced increasing social and political unrest. in 1967, the military seized power. Later that year, after try- ing to overthrow the military, Constantine fled Greece with his family. He wentfirstto Rome and then settled in London. In 1973, Greece's military government declared I _ .. him deposed. The next year, the Greek people voted to such em'mmj‘ima' leamres End the monarchy and make Greece a republic. Cori- d tile afiem Of light arid, Shad' stantine was born on June 2, 1940, in Psychico, near believed SUCh feature,‘ I“ 3 Athens. See also Greece (History). John a. Koumoulides acéur‘fitely- @“mbles "95h Constantine the Great, KAHN stuhn may or KAHN lessmn's‘ Palmelsf’f the late V ' stuhn TVNl275?-337l, also known as Constantine I, was ’ slyl‘?’ 5051.3”qu "Ear/7a!— 1he first Roman emperor to become a Christian. During PflnT'ns an'Fle' . : his reign, Christians regained freedom of worship, and UPamnngs "‘ClUde 7775' Wh’m r the Christian church became legai. The Eastern Ortho~ 7" ll 82” énd StOkE‘bX'Naflfnd dox Churches regard Constantine as a saint He rebuilt "d colors ”" (“WY earlier Palm. ByZantiurn lnow lstanbui, Turkey], renamed it Constan- l 1828’. he painted many dark' finnple, and made it his capital. He shifted the Roman med h's deerefsmn' EI'npire’s strength from Rome to the eastern provinces lune H' 17’5' '" E351 Bergholt’: and thus laid the foundations ofthe Byzantine Empire. , he began to draw the C_0U|’|' » Constantine built the first great Christian cathedral, me Of Ihls enwronmem '5 ap‘ r the Lateran Basilica in Rome. He built other famous lble “Ud'ed 3”“ Royal Acad Churches in and near Rome; and in Antioch, Syria (now “99' He W? elecrted'a fun Antioch, Turkey]; Constantinople; and Jerusaiem. n lggg‘ But In h'5 We?” he Constantine's official name was Flavius Valerius Aure- lgnmon‘ Conmble d'ed 0" “Us Constantinus. He was born in Naissa inow Nis, in ‘5 K 5' Hm“ s‘ll'bial. His father, Constantius, became emperor of the .ake Constance. WEStern provinces in 305. Constantius died in 306, and rime minister, Eleutherios Venizelos, favored the Allies. Constellation 993 his army proclaimed Constantine as successor. The sys- tem of shared rule between two senior and two junior emperors, started by Emperor Diocletian in 293, broke down completely. Seven ciaimants struggled for power. in 312, Constantine attacked Maxentius, his major rival in the west. Constantine later told how a vision before the batde had promised him victory if he fought under the sign of the cross. in another story, he ordered the first two letters of Christ’s name in Greek to be marked on his soldiers' shields. Wi’d't these marks, Constantine’s forces defeated Maxentius at the Milvian Bridge on the Tiber River. A5 a result of his victory, Constantine be- came a strong supporter of Christianity. But the Arch of Constantine, a pagan monument constructed in Rome about 315, also honors his victory. in 313, Constantine arranged a partnership with Em- peror Licinius, ruler of the eastern provinces. They met in Milan and gave freedom of worship and equal rights to all religious groups. Constantine recognized the Christian church as a legal body with rights to hold property, and returned property that had been seized to Christians. For more than 10 years, Constantine and Licinius divided the empire in 324, their rivalry resulted in warfare and a victory by Constantine, who then be- came sole ruler. Constantine made Constantinople his capital and the center of Roman government In 325, Constantine presided over the first great ecu- menica/igenerall council of the Christian church. The council met in Nicaea, in what is now northwest Turkey. it dealt with disputes among Christians, especially with the Arian heresy, which considered Christ to have been of a different substance from God. More than 300 bish- ops from all parts of the empire attended. The council condemned Arianism and drew up a statement of es— sential beliefs, the earliest version ofthe Nicene Creed (see Nicene Councilsl. Constantine died on May 22, 337, He was baptized a Christian on his deathbed. The empire passed to his sons, Constantius, Constans, and Constantine ll. Erich 5. Onion See also Byzantine Empire lBeginningsl; Christianity [picture]; World, History of the ipictu rel. Constantinople. See lstanbul. Constellation, KAHN stuh MYshulm, is a group of stars visible within a particular region of the night sky. The word constellation aiso refers to the region in which a specific group of stars appears. Astronomers have divided the sky into 68 areas, or constellations. The ancient Greeks, Romans, and people ofvarious other early civilizations observed groups of stars in the northern two-thirds of the sky. They named these groups of stars after animals and mythological charac- ters. For example, the constellation Leo was named for a lion, Pisces for two fish, and Taurus fora bull. The con- stellations Andromeda, Cassiopeia, Orion, and Perseus are named for heroines and heroes in Greek mythology. Between the eariy 1400’s and the mid-1700's, Euro- pean navigators explored the Southern Hemisphere and observed many constellations in the southernmost third of the sky. Mapmakers and explorers named these star groups for scientific instruments and otherthings as well-as for animals. For example, the constellation Telea scopium was named for the telescope. Musca was named for the fly, and Tucana for the touc‘a‘n, a large- Emiu). who ‘ ; state attained 1" Id illusion; (J , who. alter .« r heaven, w a. te attained by . nd ill will, in the first two rnder extrao - vornan can in a monas icize the ar ‘ v idhisattva ( r for the be e cycle of - enlightenm 0d of othe tinues to be r-g s between the .tions. Korea, lap . m; Japanese: ‘ walls of te s. red to 18, . ,. use discipqu .m d by him to er nirvana u .a, in order 'worship. tounty comm . It was Ill-u ‘- ’- will"!!! ' oi the open-air museum ‘Den Gamle By.’ Amus. Dan. I i. specialized colleges and an academy of m in the city. Pop. (1990 est.) 261.437. ‘& ’ TaonGILssoN THE LEARNED (b. c. 1 fiT—d. Nov. 9. 1148}, Icelandic Chieftain, ! and historian whose Irfendingabo'k (Li- JnlY 00mm ' it . urlrlandarum: The Book of the Icelanders) rska-Hderbml- " - . first history of Iceland written in the 18m 6035‘ ' " ular. Composed before 1133 and cov- ailowing individual characters to reflect upon the immediately preceding action. after which they perhaps left the stage. Arias might assume different moods and were classified as aria cantabile (lyric aria), aria di bravura (virtuoso aria), aria parlame (speechlike aria), and so on. These were sup- posed to be carefully distributed throughout rrds. The no Iv m 'od f, we “lament of] _ anrope'ra, although such composers as George . . _ £1118 9 Pen _01‘11 se‘ _ ce M 15 dorm“ had up to 1120. it includes information on Fadefiggntgg :gdvfgfzng‘éjscafilam ‘1': 1 “33 “rum” “founding of the Althing (Parliament) and sigma new ad 5i" [:5 f m9 3;- dece 111% lm C3536 (110 on the settlement of Greenland and Vinland. y m “35 0 e 35 0'3 the reprise of the A section with brilliant im- pmvised embellishments. culminating in an unaccompanied cadenm. The da capo aria was also a staple constituent of cantatas and to a lesser extent of oratorios. By the late 18th century. a reaction had set in against the da capo form. and it went into id Gammel - or house con land Estates. in - )org and S u ‘ districtand the, . rty communeis i :pcrous agri I "Ll Ali is also believed to have written much of In original version of Mndndmabo‘k (“Book d'Settiements"). a work listing the genealt» is and histories of noble Icelandic settlers. ltserved as a source for many of the 12th— untury “icelander,” or family sagas. Ari, hn-: see Luria. Isaac ben Solomon. miles (4,561 n f sharp decline. Such influential persons as the 25. ‘ solo so “I - strum ta] ace m a_ philosopher Jean-Jacques Rousseau and the US city . met. an iihspo‘i'jtantublemenctnof opei'h gut composer Chnflf’l’h GJUFk DIOWSFBd :lum'y wan“ found extensively in cantatas and orato- the da capo ana, ObJCC‘llllg to “S excessrve coloratura (or florid singing), to the dramatic impropriety of returning to the mood of sec- tion A after the contrasting mood of section B. and to the absurdity ohen resulting from the repeated section oftexr. The aria continued to be prominent in opera after about 1770. but in many diEerent, less stereotyped musical forms, ranging from sim- ple strophic songs to long. elaborate scenes. The operas of Gluck were the first important ones to utilize such a variety of arias. The aria also enjoyed a vogue as a concert piece. Op- emtic arias (e.g., Leporellc's “Catalogue Aria” in WA. Mozart's Don Giovanni) were ofien written in two parts. one dramatic and one lyrical. In Italian opera up to Aida (1871), the aria was cultivated over a longer period than in German opera. Richard Wagner in his op- eratic reforms utilized a continuous musical texture in place of separate numbers, using arias only in special instances (cg. the “Prize In. The term originated in Italy in the 16th mtury and first gained currency after 1602. #11 Giulio Caccini published Le hum/e mu‘ idle (The New Music). a collection of solo Stags with continuo (usually cello and harp— ord) accompaniment. Caccini called his “Wine, or stanza-form. songs arie (singular Fa). Most serious strophic songs published ' Italy after 1602 were called arias. and in '50? the form made its way into opera. in Data by Claudio Monteverdi (1567-1643). llIStead of using the same music for every some composers placed variations of a y over a repeated. steadily moving bass “- An'as of a popular or frivolous cast were all Called canzonetta. or arietta. Afier about ‘93”, arias nearly always were composed in M time (e.g.. 4) and also were longer and "WW musical forms. ofien suggested by the I“- By the mid~l7th century the leading :21? become the da capo aria, in which “final melody and text were repeated after It lies along _ I arbour. Its - u of a Viking r the outflow I l. The oldest as}; 141) referstol ".1 me a bish - the European « tious institu I " lined afier the e 19th century. ion of the I 1‘ . pension of list growth to ill? » ‘s foremost my v :nmark. It is I. ‘~ commerce " . manufac * achjnery, been , re are $11in t" ' the s i r . . Fet‘i‘igyai 11:11 N ‘eWenins melody and text had been sung tsong "5' D19 Me‘itfmrge'r). 1n the 213th cen— t of St. 1" ABA). Ofien the inner B section was set “‘3’: “"35. gccugedafge Y 11}1 \yvcom- 3:21 and the ‘> - t‘ime (9%.. 5), the outer A sections in 1305‘“ “1“” “€11 ,1!!! 0r ’0 c o agner ‘ .151...th ' _time (2.3., .)_ (cg. Igor Stravinsky s Rake 5 Progress and the operas of Benjamin Britten). The word aria is occasionally used for instrumental pieces of a songlike nature, as the two middle movements of Stravinsky‘s Violin Concerto. Ariadne, in Greek mythology, daughter of Pasiphae and the Cretan king Minus. She fell in love with the Athenian hero Theseus and, with a thread or glittering jewels. helped him escape the labyrinth alter he slew the Mino- taur. a beast half bull and half man that Mi- nos kept in the Labyrinth. Here the legends diverge: she was abandoned by Theseus and Us the later 17th and early 18th cen- the da capo aria was an extremely . musical form, particularly as a part of Operas and cantatas. Aria texts written 11" ABA form became shorter in compar- ‘0 Slrophic songs. with only a few lines ' “I‘ll section. The central B section was r l terse and ofien in a related key. with E15333"; f: ‘ “" 'ng mood and tempo. While the story Museum .. . Opera was advanced through recrtatrve .37 In 3de ‘ e sung in quick, speechlike rhythms). , 1928), r. r.- by contrast. were dramatically static, Z‘foot- (95-111 st church (305 . :built in the _‘ )wn hall (19 ' 5 (1933—45) . . architectl-IIP— includes 11 "' 1' 549 Arianism hanged herself; Theseus carried her to Naxos and lefl her there to die or to marry the god Dionysus; or she died in childbirth on Cyprus. Ancient Greek poets and artists liked to por— tray Ariadne asleep on the shore of Naxos while Dionysus gazes at her with love and ad- miration. Ariadne’s story was later taken up by European artists, writers, and composers. Ariadne with Dionysus and a satyr. antique has-relish in m. Vatican Museum Anderson—Alum 9mm Au Hosanna/EB Inc. includin Richard Strauss in his opera Ari- adne aquaxar (1912; Ariadne on Naxos). Arianism, a Christian heresy first proposed early in the 4th century by the Alexandrian presbyter Arius. It affirmed that Christ is not tnily divine but 3 created being Arius' basic premise was the uniqueness of God. who is alone self—existent and immutable; the Son. who is not selfcxistent. cannot be God. Be- cause the Godhead is unique, it cannot be shared or communicated, so the Son cannot be God. Because the Godhead is immutable, the Son, who is mutable, being represented in the Gospels as subject to y'th and change, cannot be God. The Son must, therefore, be deemed a creature who has been called into existence out of nothing and has bad a begin- ning. Moreover, the Son can have no direct knowledge of the Father since the Son is finite and of a different order of existence According to its opponents. especially the bishop Athanasius, Arius' teaching reduced the Son to a demigod. reintroduced polytheism (since worship of the Son was not abandoned). and undermined the Christian concept of re demption since only he who was tnily God could be deemed to have reconciled man to the Godhead. The controversy seemed to have been brought to an end by the Council of Nicaea (AD 325). which condemned Arius and his teaching and issued a creed to safeguard orthodox Chris- tian belief. This creed states that the Son is hamaoust‘an :6 Pam' (“of one substance with the Father”). thus declaring him to be all that the Father is: he is completely divine. In fact, however, this was only the beginning of a long-protracted dispute. From 325 to 337, when the emperor Con- stantine died. the Arian leaders. exiled afier the Council of Nicaea. tried. by intrigue to re- turn to their churches and sees and to banish their enemies. They were partly successful. From 337 to 350 Constans. sympathetic to the orthodox Christians, was emperor in the West, and Constantius ll. sympathetic to the Arians, was emperor in the East. At a church council held at Antioch (341). an afirmation of faith that omitted the homomion clause was issued. Another church council was held at Sardica (modern Sofia) in 342. but little was achieved by either council. Arirmism, Semi- 550 In 350 Constantius became sole ruler of the empire, and under his leadership the Nicene party (orthodox Christians) was largely crushed. The extreme Arians then declared that the Son was “unlike” (anomotos) the Father These anomoeans succeeded in hav- ing their views endorsed at Sirmium in 357, but their extremisrttstimulated the moderates, who asserted that the Son was “of similar sub» stance” (homoiousias) with the Father. Con— stantius at first supported these homoiousians but soon transferred his support to the ho- moeans, led by Acacius, who affirmed that the Son was “like” (humoios) the Father, Their views were approved in 360 at Constantino» ple. where all previous creed: were rejected, the term our-in (“substance," or “nut-‘1‘“) was repudiated, and a statement of faith was is- anal stating that the Son was “like the Father who begot him.” After Constantius‘ death (36]), the orthodox Christian majority in the West consolidated its position. The persecution of orthodox Christians conducted by the (Arian) emperor Valens (364-378) in the East and the success of the teaching of Basil the Great of Caesarea. Gregory of Nyssa. and Gregory of Nazianzus led the homoiousian majority in the East to realize its fundamental agreement with the Nicene party. When the emperors Gratian (367333) and Theodosius I (379—395) took up the defense of orthodoxy, Arianism col- lapsed. lo 381 the second ecumenical council met at Constantinople. Arianism was pro- scribed, and a statement of faith, the Nicene Creed, was approved, Although this ended the heresy in the em- pire. Arianisrn continued among some of the Germanic tribes to the end ,of the 7th century. In modern times some Unitarians are vii-tn» ally Arians in that they are unwilling either to reduce Christ to a mere human being or to attribute to him a divine nature identical with that of the Father. The Christology of Jeho- vah’s Witnesses, also. is a form of Arianism: they regard Arius as a forerunner of Charles Talc Russell. the founder of their movement Arianism, Semi—z see SemiAArianism. Ariana lrpino, town. Avellino provincial. Campania regime, southern Italy. It is situ- ated on a rocky eminence in the Apennines, east of Benevento, in a fertile district that has often been devastated by earthquakes. There is a castle of Norman origin and a 16th-century cathedral in Ariana lrpino. Cave dwellings can still be seen in the vicinity. Ce— ment, pottery, and textiles are manufactured locally. and gypsum mines are nearby. Pop. (1988 est.) mun.. 23,312. Ariaramnes, also spelled ARIYARAMNA (11. late 7th century BC), early Achaemenid king of Persia (reigned c. 640-c. 615). The son of the previous king, Teispes, Ari- , aramncs ruled over Persis (modern Fairs. in southwestern Iran); his brother Cyrus 1 was given control of Anshan in Elam. north of the Persian Gulf. A campaign by the Medes, how- ever, broke the power of Ariaramnes, and he and his son Arsamcs, who succeeded him, be- came vassals of Media (in modem northwest Iran). Dating to the reign of Ariaramnes is an important gold tablet written in cuneiform— the first historical inscription in Old Persian from Achaernenid times. The tablet not only traces the royal line of Ariaramna but also provides the first Persian mention of Ahura Mazda, the supreme god. Arias (Madrid), Amulfo (b. Aug. 15. 19011 Penonomé. Panama—d. Aug. 10. 1988. Mi» anti, Fla., U.S.), three times president of Panama (June 1940-0ctober 1941, Novem- ber 1949-May 1951. and Oct. 1—12, 1968) and three times deposed. The younger brother of Harmodio Arias (Panamanian president. 1932—36), Arias was educated at the University of Chicago and Harvard Medical School (to become a sur- geon) and was minister of agriculture and pub- lic works in the 1930s during the presidency of his brother. During his first term, he forced foreign businessmen to transfer their compa- nies to Panamanian ownership and divested black West lndians in Panama of their citizen- ship. He sympathized with the Axis powers in World War 11 and opposed U.S. requests for defense installations. After the coup that de- posed him (probably supported by the United States). he went into exile until 1945. During his dictatorial and corrupt second term. he re- placed the constitution. dissolved the National Assembly and the Supreme Court. and was finally deposed by the police. Denied political rights from 1951 to 1960., Arias ran unsuc- cessfully for president in 1964, was elected in 1963. and was deposed by the military 11 days after taking office. He ran unsuccessfully for president in 1984. Arias Divila, Pedro. also called PEDRARIAS DAVILA (b. 1440?, Segowia. Castile [Spain]— d. March 6, 1531. Leon. New Spain [now in Nicaragua]), Spanish soldier and colonial ad— ministrator who led the first Spanish expedi- tion to found permanent colonies in the New World. A soldier in his youth. Arias Déyila served with distinction in wars against the Moors in Granada in the 14905 and in North Africa in 1508—1 1. It is believed that he owed his ap- pointment as captain general of the Spanish lands in the New World. which he received in 1513. to the bishop of Burgos. Arias Davila sailed for the New World in 1514 with 19 ships and about 1,500 men. Arias Davila‘s accomplishments include es- tablishing colonies in what are now Panama (1514) and Nicaragua (1522), serving as g0v- ernor of Panama (15l4—26) and Nicaragua (1527»31). and founding Panama City (1519). He also sent out expeditions of conquest. such as that led by Hernan Ponce and Bartolomé Hurtado to what are now Costa Rica and Nicaragua in 1516 and that led by Francisco Pizarro and Diego de Almagro. which con- quered the Inca empire in what is now Peru in 1524. Arias Davila. however. has been de- scribed both as being too old and as lacking the intellectual and moral capacity needed by a captain general. He seems to have delib~ erately promoted discord among the captains placed under his command. and he was held responsible for the trial and execution of the explorer Vasco Nufiez de Balboa in 1519. Arias de Saavedra, Hernando, byname HERNANDARIAS (b. 1561?. Asuncion [now in Paraguayl—d. 1634. Santa Fe [now in Ar- gentinall. Spanish-American explorer. soldier. and lieutenant governor (1591—93) and gover- nor (1602-09, 1614—18) of the Spanish district of Rio de la Plata in South America. Hemandarias was known for his protection of the Indian population, for establishment of closer ties between the church and the civil authorities, and for encouraging the establish- ment of Jesuit and Franciscan missions. An efficient and incorruptiblc official, he inadver- tently caused economic setbacks to the area by rigidly enforcing the laws against smug— gling. an activity that had become virtually in- stitutionalized under more lenient governors. Hernandarias founded the city of Corrien- tes (now in Argentina) and helped develop Buenos Aires, Santa Fe. and Asuncion. Dun ing his second term as governor. the Rio de la Plata was divided into two administrative units. one in Buenos Aircs and another in Asuncion. each with its own govemori Arias Si’uicher, Oscar (b. Sept. 13, 1941. Heredia, Costa Rica). politician and official. president of Costa Rica (1986—90), who was . capital . Chile. ‘1 . at the {o , .I rid). and ' d dunes c awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in 19 his Central American peace plan. Born into one of the wealthiest cuff. ing families in Costa Rica, Arias s u studied economics at the University of Rica and earned a PhD. from the Uni of Essex in England. In the 1960s he working for the moderate socialist N Liberation Party (Partido de Liberacion , clonal; PLN), and in 1972 he was u. minister of planning in the gavemm . 7 President J osé Figueres, a post he held 1977. He was elected secretary-general of PLN in 1979, and in 1986 he won the " election to become president of Costa - As president. Arias Sénchez took m to cope with Costa Rica’s heavy foreign debtedness and other economic problem , his main interest was in trying to peace and political stability to the suit countries of Central America. While critical of the Sandinista govemmeut in . bouiing Nicaragua he forbade that . guerrilla opponents (the “Conth from crating militarily on Costa Rican soil February 1987 he proposed a regional plan for the Central American countti: fig‘ would set a date for ceasefires between My? emment and rebel forces. ensure am for political prisoners. and schedule free a“ democratic elections in those countries. mi. and the leaders of Guatemala, El Honduras. and Nicaragua signed this plan if August 1987. in October of that year Arias was awarded the Nobel Prize for Peace in recognition of his elforts to achieve the rungs of peace in the region. / Arihau. Buenaventura Caries (b. Nov. 4; 1798. Barcelona, Spain—d. Sept. 17, 1362, Barcelona), economist and authorwhosem Odo a [a patria (1832; “Ode to the Path: land“) marked the renaissance of Catalan B erature in the 19th century in Spain. i’ After working in Madrid at the ' establishment of Gaspar Remisa (1830-41) Aribau became the director of the and financial secretary to the royal household. Animated by a deep patriotism. Aiibau’s is marked by the early Romanticist com. ‘ with history. He was one of the editors of Europa; and El vapor, two of the most im tam periodicals of the Romantic mov the latter heavily reflecting the medievalisl fluence of the British novelist Sir Walter -' His Odo a la pam'a. upon which his *- rests. was a defense of regional feeling. l‘ - harbour at Artc brooms—Photo I a: ‘ : is situated - 1/ the northernm ' San Marcos c .: pre-Colum bi until 1879, Chileans, who g2 ' .u— the Treaty ’of Chile’s lei ed until 19.‘ ' ntil the mid-2 port and h: v '1 trade. it is n a commercia Chile, and V; 7 processing ‘ developed 11 ' an oil pipelin: :r ed Azapa z ' u produce for 7 - for export, \ll . u , railways I via, and its 10 way. Arica i: a beach rose: 985 £81.) 126,70 “~‘I the dot other relatis in the vernacular of Catalan. which attcm. ‘ - Ce amont to unite contemporary intellectual trends “' the aridisy ; 10121 area of t vegetation ~ they have a i “Ids play a m: by blowing a tration of g ‘uttent' fleas where a "1m carbonate manages to per .' Although lion in their productive valleys of t salinizatior Ve irrigation adt’aquate perr dépanem c France, Its 1.888 s embrace the Pyrenees. ir Aribau, oil painting by J.E Roll; in the Real Academia de Belles Aries de San Jorge de Barcelona Avemm Mas Barcelona native tradition, Aribau also edited. alOIIE Manuel de Rivadeneyra, the first four V of the famous Bib/totem dc aulores es ‘ (“Library of Spanish Authors"). a menu 13! attempt to bring together all the im, , literature of Spain. (It filled 71 volumes " completion in 1880.) Aribiix (Mongol ruler): see Arigboge. nees lie sys . men married as promised. but Brunhild re- . suspicious and dissatisfied. Soon the two 5 quarrel; Brunhild ridicules Kriemhild II. marrying a vassal, and Kriemlrild reveals . 'ed‘s and Gunther‘s deception. : ow Hagen becomes a prominent figure as ‘g'des with Brunhild and takes the initiative , plotting vengeance. He wins Kriemhild‘s a” dence and learns Siegfried’s one vulnera- ‘ 5pm and then strikes the fatal blow. '. ‘ng these events, Brunhild drops almost riced out of the story, and the death regfried does not appear to be so much ce on her part as an execution by 11, who is suspicious of Siegfried‘s grow- 7 power. Siegfricd‘s funeral is conducted great ceremony, and the grief-stricken n 'id remains at Worms, though for a time estranged from Gunther and Hagen. r they are reconciled in order to make ' “of Siegfried‘s treasure, which is brought to ' , u . Kriemhild begins to distribute it, but . fearing that her influence will grow, the treasure in the Rhine. ' . second part of the poem is much sim« in stnrcture and deals basically with the between Hagen and Kriemhild and vengnnce against the Burgundians. Etzel : , king of the lions, asks the hand of ‘ u ’d, who accepts, seeing the possibili- of vengeance in such a union. After many > she persuades Etzel to invite her broth- _ . and Hagen to his court. Though Hagen ‘ ~wary, they all go to Etzel's court, where _ combat and complete carnage ensues. 'emhild has Gunther killed and then, with :: 'cd’s sword, she slays the bound and de- ' hselcss Hagen, who to the last has refused 4: reveal where Siegfricd’s treasure is hidden. ‘lrienrhild in turn is slain by a knight named :n- brand, who is outraged at the atrocities Int she has just committed. Jr: the Nibelungenlied some elements of great ntiquity are discernible. The story of Brun- iild appears in Old Norse literature. The brief li'erences to the heroic deeds of Siegfried al- v- to several ancient stories, many of which , llprcserved in the Scandinavian Poetic Edda (kcEdda), Volsunga saga, and Thidrilcr saga, which Siegfried is called Sigurd. The entire _ nd part of the story, the fall of the Bur- undians, appears in an older Eddaic poem, Allakr'ida (“Lay of Alli"; rec Alli, Lay of). Yet lite ijelungenlr'ed does not appear to be a let'uoining of individual stories but, rather, I Integration of component elements into a Inninng whole. 11 Is the second pan of the poem that Hurst: the title “The Book of Kriemhild.” r ' destruction of the Burgundians (Nibelun- Is her deliberate purpose. The climax the first part, the death of her husband, , I ed, prepares the ground for the story - tliter vengeance. Furthermore. Kriemhild is _ person introduced in the story, which with her death: and all through the story mutating attention is paid to Hagen. Concentration on Kriemhild and on the , it between her and Hagen would seem “Best that it was the poet's intention to the theme of Kriemhild’s vengeance. Mbelungenlied was written at a time Inticileval German literature when the cur~ ' emphasis was on the “courtly” virtues of ‘ tion and refinement of taste and be— iueenbc r. The Nibelungeniiea', with its displays 313;}! Violent emotion and its uncompromising .., . ‘s on vengeance and honour, by con- ‘ Jocks back to an earlier period and bears mark of a difierent angina—tire heroic lit- , of the Teutonic peoples at the time 311' great migrations. The poem’s basic matter also goes back to that period, Is probable that the story of the de- Dn of the Burgundians was originally ~‘ by the overthrow of the Burgundian " at Worms by the Hubs in AD 437, the story of Brunhild and Siegfried may have been inspired by events in the history of the Merovingian dynasty of the Franks in about AD 600. Much of the heroic quality of the original stories has remained in the poem, particularly in the author’s conception of Hagen as the relentless protector of King Gunther’s honour. Probably no literary work has given more to Germanic arts than the Nibelungenlicn'. Many variations and adaptations appeared in later centuries. The most significant modern adap- tation is Richard Wagner's famous opera cycle Der Ring o'er Nibefungen (1853-74). Nicaea (Turkey): rec lznik. Nicaert, Council of (325), the first ecumeni- cal council of the Christian church, meeting in ancient Nicaea (now Izmk, Tun). It was called by the emperor Constantine I, an unbaptized mtechumen, or neOphyte, who presided over the opening session and took part in the dis cussious. He hoped a general council of the church would solve the problem created in the Eastern church by Arianism, a heresy first proposed by Arius of Alexandria that aflirrned that Christ is not divine but a created being. Pope Sylvester I did not attend the council but was represented by legates. The council condemned Arius and, with re- luctance on the part of some, incorporated the nonscriptural word homaousios (“of one substance") into a creed (the Nicene Creed) to signify the absolute equality of the Son with the Father. The emperor then exiled Arius, an act that, while manifesting a solidarity of church and state, underscored the importance of secular patronage in ecclesiastical aifairs. The council also attempted but failed to es- tablish a uniform date for Easter. But it issued decrees on many other matters, including the proper method of consccrating bishops, a con- demnation of lending money at interest by clerics, and a refusal to allow bishops, priests, and deacons to move from one church to another. Socrates Scholasticus, a 5th-century Byuntine historian, said that the council in- tended to make a canon enforcing celibacy of the clergy, but it failed to do so when some objected. It also confirmed the primacy of Alexandria and Jerusalem over other sees in their respective areas. Nicaea, Council of [787), the seventh ecu< metrical council ofthe Christian church, meet- ing in Nicaea (now lznik, Tun), It attempted to resolve the Iconoclastic Controversy, ini- tiated in 726 when Emperor Leo 111 issued a decree against the worship of icons. The council declared that icons deserved reverence and veneration but not adoration. Convoked by the patriarch Tarasius, the council was at- tended by delegates of Pope Adrian I, and the pope confirmed the decrees of the council. Its authority was challenged in France as late as the 11th century, however, partly because certain doctrinal phrases had been incorrectly translated. But Rome's original verdict was eventually accepted, and the second Council of Nicaea was accepted as the seventh ecuw metrical council. Nicaea, empire of, independent principality of the fragmented Byzantine Empire, founded in 1204 by Theodore I Lascaris (1208—22); it served as a political and cultural centre from which a restored Byzantium arose in the mid- 13th century under Michael VIII Palaeologus. Theodore fled to Anatolia with other Byzan- tine leaders afier the Latin crusaders' con- quest of Constantinoplelin 1204, establishing himself at Nicaea (now lznilr, Tun), 40 miles (64 km) to the southeast. Crowned emperor in 1208, Theodore gradually acquired control over much of western Anatolia. He and his successors sponsored a revival of Greek stud- ies at their capital. The next Nicaean emperor was John Vatatzes, who sought to retake Constantino- ple before his rivals Theodore Angelus. despot ‘ 675 Nicaragua of Epirus, or John Asen II of Bulgaria (1218— 41). He defeated Theodore at Klokotnitsa (in Bulgaria) in 1230. Between 1240 and 1250 be negotiated with the Western emperor Fred- erick 11 (1220-50) for help in reconquering Constantinople, but nothing came of the pact. Theodore II Lascaris (1254—58) and John IV Lascaris (1258-61) maintained Nicaean strength against the invading Mongols during their brief reigns. In 1261 a Nicaean general, Michael Palaeologus, retook Constantinople and, as Michael VIII, founded the last dynasty of the Byzantine emperors. Nicaragua, oflicially REPUBLIC or NICARA- GUA, Spanish Rerunucn or NICARAGUA, largest country of Central America, covering an area of50,464 square miles (130,700 square km). The capital is Managua. Nicaragua‘s maximum length from north to south is about 275 miles (440 km), and its maximum width from east to west is about 280 miles (450 km). It is bordered by Honduras on the north, the Caribbean Sea on the east. Costa Rica on the south, and the Pacific Ocean on the west. The population in 1990 was estimated to be 3,371,000. A brief treatment of Nicaragua follows For full treatment, see MACROPAEDIAZ Central America. For current history and for statistics on so- ciety and economy. see BRITANNICA rock or THE YEAR. The land. The western half of Nicaragua has highly dissected and thickly forested mountain ranges that alternate with basins and fertile valleys. To the west and south of this central mountain core there is a discontinuous belt of some 40 dormant and active volcanoes that stretches northwest-southeast, parallel to the Pacific coast A basin region, including Lake Nicaragua (3,156 square miles [8,157 square km]) and the smaller Lake Managua (400 square miles {1,035 square kml). lies in the southwest interior of Nicaragua, fist of the volcanic belt The Pacific lowlands are to the west of the volcanic belt. In the eastern half of the country the ter- rain gradually descends toward the Caribbean coast, where a fringe marshland area is called the Mosquito Coast. The Coco River (485 miles [780 km] long), with a drainage basin of 2,240 square miles (5,800 square km), forms most of the boundary with Honduras. The San Juan River links Lake Nicaragua to the Caribbean Sea and forms much of the southern boundary with Costa Rica. Seismic activity is frequent in Nicaragua, occasionally resulti in devmting earthquakes. The climate of Nicaragua is tropical, with a dry (January—mid-May) and a wet (mid-May- Dccember) season. It is slightly cooler and much wetter in the cost than in the west. The Pacific side of the country has a mean annual temperature of 8 1 ° F (27° C), and annual pre. cipitation is about 75 inches (1,900 mm); the corresponding figures for eastern Nicaragua are 79" F (26' C) and as much as 150 inches (3.800 mm) of rainfall. Tropical forests cover Nlcnragua ...
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Christianity essay-1 - regard the sacraments :tions...

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