3D2 - 20 Chapter 2 External Reality Mapping The Strategic...

Info iconThis preview shows pages 1–2. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Chapter 2 Mapping The Strategic Territory The system is always imbedded in a larger system. C. West Churchman The Systems Approach (1968) Strategy is a means for anticipating and internalizing the future. Organization design must, therefore, accommodate current situational demands as well as anticipated and unanticipated future chal- lenges. One must understand the strategy process to ensure that strategy formulation is realistic, compre- hensive, and sufficiently flexible to accommodate unexpected changes. One needs to understand organiza- tions to ensure that organization design supports selected strategies with the greatest ease, least pain, lowest cost, and highest potential for strategic success. Beyond this, one must understand the plural forces that impact the organizational and strategic planning systems for either to make any sense. Strategy and organi- zation only have meaning relative to the force-fields within which they are designed to operate . . . they only have meaning in context. Putting Organization And Strategy In Context Ushered in by World War II, the “Marketing Concept” in the early 1950’s, and Kenneth Boulding’s article “General Systems Theory — The Skeleton of Science,” (Management Science, Vol. 2, No. 3, April 1956, pp. 197-208), contemporary perspectives reflect the realization that organizations are not closed systems , but are open systems . In fact, they are systems of systems, within systems . To fully comprehend organizations, one cannot limit one’s concerns to elements and the dynamics of those elements, rather, one must also consider the relationships among elements, sub-systems, and super-systems along with their dynamic properties. Once one departs from the unidimensional simplicity of a machine or social system model of organization, the clarity and directionality of cause-effect relationships becomes considerably more diffuse. Although the open systems perspective provides a more realistic vantage point than alternative views, the observer is often overwhelmed by a far-more complex vista. To quote organization theorist Charles Perrow, “everything is connected to everything else” (“The Short and Glorious History of Organizational Theory,” Organizational Dynamics , Summer 1973). For example, the issue of conflict becomes more muddled when raised to the power of an organiza- tion, or beyond, in scale. Intraorganizational conflicts are those that arise among the sub-systems within an organization and interorganizational conflicts are those that arise between an organization and the setting in which it operates. The former may result from system interdependencies, socio-technical rela- tionships, as a byproduct of large scale operations, structure-process-goal inconsistencies, or simply as a consequence of life-cycle contingencies. The latter may be a reflection of inappropriate configuration, poor interfacing and environmental scanning, disequilibrium between internal efficiency priorities and external effectiveness requisites, or a lack of organizational “slack” for internalizing environmental shifts.
Background image of page 1

Info iconThis preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full DocumentRight Arrow Icon
Image of page 2
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course MGMT 4125 taught by Professor Robertdesman during the Fall '11 term at Kennesaw.

Page1 / 20

3D2 - 20 Chapter 2 External Reality Mapping The Strategic...

This preview shows document pages 1 - 2. Sign up to view the full document.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Ask a homework question - tutors are online