LECTURE_20_04-22-10_Chap_15_Tornado

LECTURE_20_04-22-10_Chap_15_Tornado - Climate/weather...

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Climate/weather – Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Chap. 15 Thunderstorms and Tornadoes Tornados -General overview -Tornado development -Scale, size, and intensity – The Fujita Scale -Damage and risk
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Fig. 15-2, p. 398 Thunderstorms and Tornado development Cold air Warm air Warm air
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Fig. 15-2, p. 398 Tornadoes – OVERVIEW – Important Points T O R N A D O E S - Form in relation to large convective thunderstorms -In rare instances, tornadoes can also occur in the northeast quadrant of hurricanes. -Almost always have counterclockwise rotation (clockwise rotation is rare) -The U.S. has an unusually high number of large tornadoes (similar to thunderstorms) -Most destructive storm (in terms of loss of life and property) and the most significant natural hazard in the Midwest
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Fig. 15-1, p. 398 QUESTION? Compare the two areas on the map. Why does the U.S. Midwest have so many more thunderstorms/lightening and tornadoes than regions in China at the same latitude?
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Tornado Alley Tornadoes: Numbers of significant tornado days per year. p. 401-413 Fig. 15-24, p. 410
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Fig. 10-17, p. 258 Tornadoes – OVERVIEW – Collision zone between two fronts -Cold air pushes under warm moist air along a cold front -Warm air rapidly rises over the advancing cold air mass -Produces individual thunderstorms fronts up to 25km in across -Lines of thunderstorms can be up to 1000 km long
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Fig. 15-2, p. 398 Thunderstorms and Tornado development Cold air Warm air Warm air REMEMBER: Convection – Heat – Density Not too different than convection in the Earth’s mantle
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A tornado can develop  in the collision zone  between two fronts,  commonly in the “hook”  of a rainstorm  Fig. 15-13, p. 405 (pale blue). Tornado Development and  convective thunderstorms
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Fig. 15-2, p. 398 Thunderstorms and Tornado development Cold air Warm air Warm air
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Thunderstorms – OVERVIEW – Important Points T O R N A D O E S D E V E L O P M E N T - Form when there is a shear in wind directions between “colliding” horizontal winds *EXAMPLE: westerly winds (aloft) colliding with southeasterly winds (surface) -Collision and wind shear can cause a rolling of horizon currents that can be dragged upward into vertical rotation by warm updraft in thunderstorms and creating a slowly rotating wall cloud often associated with Mammatus clouds (sign of unstable weather) -Vertically rotating vortex forms within wall clouds of thunderstorms and descend to form tornadoes - If you see what looks like Mammatus clouds and a wall cloud…tornadoes almost always soon to follow!
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Fig. 15-2, p. 398 Thunderstorms and Tornado development Cold air Warm air Warm air West wind (aloft) Southeast wind (surfa
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a. Wind shear, with  surface winds from the  southeast, and winds  from the west aloft. b. Slowly rotating vortex  can be pulled up into a  thunderstorm to form a  tornado.
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