EXAM_II_Review - EXAM 2 REVIEW STARTS HERE! REMINDER!...

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EXAM 2 REVIEW STARTS HERE!!! REMINDER!!! 03-04-10 (Thursday): EXAM 1 BE FAMILIAR WITH MATERIAL FROM THE FOLLOWING CHAPTERS CHAP 2 (Review plate boundaries) CHAP 5 (Tsunamis) CHAP 6 (Volcanoes) CHAP 7 (Volcanoes)
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Chapter 5: Tsunami
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The Science of Tsunami How do tsunami form? How fast do tsunami move across the oceans? Where are the best and worst places to be? What happens after the first wave? Analysis of damage due to this tsunami. How can we measure tsunami and warn people at risk? Are these waves expected in other parts of the world? Note: Tsunami should not be called “tidal waves:” they have nothing to do with tides!
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Tsunami Generated From: Large earthquakes that displace water by vertical seafloor movement Submarine landslides Submarine volcanic eruptions Asteroid impacts
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How do Tsunami Form? Rocks slowly flex as plates move – compression of margin Subduction zone is “locked” and building up stress Slip of >10 m creates a massive earthquake Vertical motion/displacement of sea floor displaces water tsunami Fig. 5-9, p. 105
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REVIEW: what types of faults can vertically displace water? Fig. 3-13a, p. 42 (1) Normal Fault - extension (3) Thrust Fault - compression (4) Strike-slip fault – slide past each ……………………… other (2) Reverse Fault compression Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 Block 2 Block 1 Block 2
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STEP 1: Sea Floor Displaces Water Largest wave in the open ocean from sub-sea earthquake ~15 m Fig. 5-10, p. 105
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STEP 2: Waves grow in shallow water Bays and inlets also magnify wave height Fig. 5-25, p. 115
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STEP 3: Waves grow near shore As wave approaches shore it slows down due to friction Compresses the water from a broad wave into a tall wave Same water volume Fig. 5-28, p. 116 Fig. 5-28, p. 116
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Tide Gauges Show Multiple Waves 1960 Chile Earthquake caused this Tsunami in Hilo, HI 3 rd or 4 th wave is commonly highest! Fig. 5-4, p. 103
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How fast does a Tsunami wave move? Velocity of wave = √(g h) g is gravity h is water depth For deep ocean , depth ≈ 4,600 meters velocity = 763 km/hr ( 476 miles/hr ) ~ speed of some jet aircraft For shallower water near shore , depth = 100 meters velocity = 112 km/hr ( 70 miles/hr ) In deep water, the wave height is 20 to 50 cm Typically wavelength is 300 km ~1/2 hour between two wave crests
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Why was the Sumatra Earthquake there? The India Plate sinks under the
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EXAM_II_Review - EXAM 2 REVIEW STARTS HERE! REMINDER!...

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