LECTURE_08_02_16-10_EARTHQUAKES___TSUNAM

LECTURE_08_02_16-10_EARTHQUAKES___TSUNAM - EARTHQUAKES -...

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EARTHQUAKES - continued EARTHQUAKES - continued
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Earthquake Building Codes Differ by Region , depending on earthquake risk Fig. 3-35, p.53
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Fig. 3-41, p.55 Weak-story failure
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Unbraced garages below apartments Fig. 3-40, p.55 Fig. 3-40, p. 55
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Weak first-story failure in Mexico City, 1985 Fig. 3-29, p. 51
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Fig. 3-42, p. 55 Weak 2 nd Floor with Windows in Kobe, Japan, 1995
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Liquifaction : Niigata, Japan - 1964 Fig. 3-31, p. 52
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Soil liquefaction can cause great damage, even in strong buildings! Niigata, Japan, 1964
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Liquefaction toppled buildings 1999 Izmit, Turkey
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Fig. 3-33, p.52 Izmit, turkey: Left Side Settled
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Liquefaction  toppled buildings  1999 Izmit, Turkey Fig. 3-2, p.52
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Fig. 3-34, p. 53 ground surface Building collapsed Underground structure affects shaking at the surface
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Why did this happen? Kobe, Japan, 1995 Fig. 3-36, p. 54
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Toppled freeway Kobe, Japan - 1995
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Fig. 3-38, p. 54 Freeway support:  Reinforcing bar s are very weak  after concrete around them shatter
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Fig. 3-39, p. 54 this Los Angeles area freeway collapsed in 1971 and 1994!
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Diagonal Cross Bracing Fig. 3-43, p. 56 (gets shorter) (gets longer) Strong cross braces that prevent a diagonal from getting longer or shorter can prevent a building from collapsing.
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Fig. 3-45, p. 57 A cross-bracing retrofit : USGS, Menlo Park, CA
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Fig. 3-44, p. 56 Earthquake bracing of walls in a house Before: Retrofit:
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Fig. 3-46, p. 57 Without Cross Bracing: Izmit, Turkey, 1999
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A wood-frame house in, shaken off its foundation  but not as likely to collapse and kill someone –  1989 Loma Prieta earthquake, Watsonville, California, southeast of Santa Cruz.  Fig. 3-48, p. 58
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Some ways to make your house more resistant to  earthquake damage. Fig. 3-47, p. 58
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NEW STUFF (Chap. 5) Tsunamis – Overview Tsunamis – How are they generated? Tsunamis – Examples
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course ISP 203 taught by Professor Paquette during the Fall '08 term at Michigan State University.

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LECTURE_08_02_16-10_EARTHQUAKES___TSUNAM - EARTHQUAKES -...

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