family_lec14_parenting_pt1_3pg

family_lec14_parenting_pt1_3pg - 11/2/2010 Parenting...

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11/2/2010 1 Sociology of the Family Prof. Dawne Mouzon Parenting 1 Fertility 2 3 Figure 9.1 Total Fertility Rate (lifetime number of children per woman) Sources : Caplow, Theodore, Louis Hicks, and Ben J. Wat enberg. The First Measured Century: An il ustrated Guide to Trends in America. Washington, DC : AEI Press, 2000, p. 85; U.S. Department of Health and Human Services, Trends in the Wel -Being of America’s Children and Youth: 2008. Washington, DC: Of ice of the Assistant Secretary for Planning and Evaluation, 2008. 1930-1939: Great Depression 1947-1964: World War II
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11/2/2010 2 Differential Fertility: Social Class 4 Higher education/income = ________________ fertility Why ? Cost-benefit analysis Pronatalism Differential Fertility: Race/Ethnicity 5 Lowest fertility among ___________ , highest fertility among ______________ Other notable variations: Foreign-born vs. native-born High diversity in fertility among _________ Historical fertility rates Contributing factors: Strong correlation between race/ethnicity and social class More children = more workers. More children = “lottery logic” Fertility Rates by Race/Ethnicity (2007) 6 60.1 71.6 102.1 71.4 64.7 69.5 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 NH White NH Black Hispanic Asian Native American Total Births per 1,000 women aged 15-44: Hamilton, Martin, and Ventura 2009(Table 1)
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11/2/2010 3 Reasons for Low U.S. Fertility Rate 7 1. 2. 3. 4. 5. Consequences of Low Fertility: Benefits of Small Families 8 1. 2. Likely mechanism? 3. Likely mechanism #1: Likely mechanism #2: Voluntary Childlessness 9 ___% of women were childless in 1980 vs. _____ % in 2007 Social stigma, especially for women 3 pathways to voluntary childlessness: 1. 2. 3. Consequences of childlessness: 1. 2. 3. 4. Change in social networks when elderly
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11/2/2010 4 Infertility 10 1 in 8 couples (~12.5%) Options for infertile couples: Artificial insemination Oocyte cryopersevation In vitro fertilization Surrogate mothering Fertility drugs Potential issues Delayed Childbearing 11 Average age at 1 st birth: ____ in 1970, ____ in 2006 Risks for children Risks for mothers: pregnancy complications, miscarriages, C-sections Consequences for parents and children: 1. 2. 3. Birthrates for Mothers Over Age 30, 1980-2006 (Live Births per 1,000) 12 61.9 69.1 80.8 82.1 98.1 19.8 24 31.7 34.9 46.3 3.9 4 5.5 6.8 8.4 0 20 40 60 80 100 120 1980 1985 1990 1996 2006 30-34 35-39 40-44 Hamilton, Martin, and Ventura (2006)
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11/2/2010 5 Family Composition 13 Unmarried Parenting 14 In 2007, ____ % of all births were to married mothers, vs. ____ % in 1960
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family_lec14_parenting_pt1_3pg - 11/2/2010 Parenting...

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