digestionoutline

digestionoutline - LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY...

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© LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. IMHOLTZ) DIGESTIVE P1 OF 8 I. Function of the digestive system a. Take in food b. Break it down to nutrient molecules c. Absorb nutrient molecules into the bloodstream d. Rid the body of any indigestible remains. II. Divisions of the digestive system a. 2 main groups of organs: i. Alimentary canal organs ii. Accessory digestive organs . III. Alimentary canal organs a. Organs through which food and food waste will actually pass. b. Runs from the mouth to the anus c. Includes the mouth , pharynx , esophagus , stomach , small intestine , and large intestine . IV. Accessory digestive organs a. Contribute to the processes of digestion and absorption; but no food or food waste actually passes thru them. b. Include: teeth , tongue , salivary glands , liver , gallbladder , and pancreas . V. Basic processes performed by the digestive system: a. Ingestion food is enclosed within the alimentary canal. b. Propulsion process of moving food thru the alimentary canal. Includes deglutition , i.e., swallowing (voluntary), and peristalsis (involuntary). Peristalsis is the primary means by which food is propelled thru the GI tract. It involves waves of alternating contraction and relaxation of the smooth muscle in the organ walls. c. Mechanical digestion initial breakdown that physically prepares food for further chemical digestion. Includes chewing, mixing of food and saliva by the tongue as well as churning of food in the stomach. d. Chemical digestion hydrolytic breakdown of food molecules into their chemical building blocks by enzymes secreted into the alimentary canal. Small amounts occur in the mouth and stomach. Majority occurs in the small intestine. e. Absorption passage of nutrients (along w/ vitamins, minerals, and water) from the lumen of the GI tract across the mucosa and into either blood or lymph. Primarily occurs in the small intestine. f. Defecation elimination of indigestible substances from the body via the anus in the form of feces . VI. Peritoneum a. Exteriors of most digestive organs are covered by a serous membrane, the visceral peritoneum . b. Abdominal wall is lined by another serous membrane, the parietal peritoneum . c. Peritoneal cavity is the potential space btwn the visceral and parietal peritoneal membranes and contains a small amount of peritoneal fluid . This arrangement allows the digestive organs to slide somewhat without experiencing undue friction.
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© LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. IMHOLTZ) DIGESTIVE P2 OF 8 d. Most digestive organs are suspended by a mesentery , a double layer of serous membranes that anchors organs in place. e. Mesenteries also provide a connective tissue road thru which nerves, blood vessels, and lymph vessels can travel. f.
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digestionoutline - LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY...

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