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1. Heart a. Generates the pressure that propels blood thru blood vessels. b. Separates oxygenated and deoxygenated blood separate. c. Helps regulates the body’s blood supply. 2. Heart position a. W/i the mediastinum, the medial cavity of the thorax. b. Apex rests on the superior diaphragmatic surface and points toward the left hip. c. Base points towards the right shoulder. d. Medial to the lungs, anterior to the esophagus and vertebrae, and posterior to the sternum. 3. Pericardium a. Encloses the heart. b. Outermost layer is the fibrous pericardium – a collagenous structure that protects and anchors the heart and prevents it from distending. c. Deeper is the serous pericardium, a 2 layered serous membrane. d. Parietal serous pericardium is the outer of the 2 and abuts the fibrous pericardium. e. Visceral serous pericardium is the inner of the 2 and is the external covering of the heart and is a.k.a. the epicardium. f. Parietal and visceral layers are continuous with one another where the great vessels leave the heart. g. Pericardial cavity is the space btwn the parietal and visceral layers and contains serous fluid, which reduces friction. 4. Heart wall a. Divided into 3 layers. b. Epicardium i. Most superficial and is a.k.a. visceral serous pericardium. ii. Composed of simple squamous epithelium overlaying thin loose CT. c. Myocardium i. Middle layer. ii. Primarily cardiac muscle, but also contains blood vessels, nerves, and CT. iii. Myocardial CT forms a dense network known as the fibrous skeleton, which supports the heart valves, acts as origin/insertion for the cardiac muscle cells, and helps direct the spread of electrical activity within the heart along defined pathways. d. Endocardium. i. Inner layer ii. Consists of endothelium (simple squamous epithelium) resting on a layer of thin CT. iii. Lines the heart chambers and its folds create the heart valves. 5. Heart Chambers a. 2 superior atria and 2 inferior ventricles. b. Thin interatrial septum divides the 2 atria c. Tthick interventricular septum divides the 2 ventricles. 6. Heart consists of 2 pumps connected in series. a. Each pump sends blood to a different circuit. b. Pulmonary circuit runs btwn the heart and the lungs. c. Systemic circuit runs btwn the heart and the rest of the body tissues. d. Right side of the heart receives deO 2 blood from the systemic circuit and pumps it thru the pulmonary circuit. e. Left side of the heart receives O 2 blood from the pulmonary circuit and pumps it thru the systemic circuit. 7. Atria a. Heart’s receiving chambers. b. Small and thinly muscled. Large muscle mass is unnecessary, since atrial contraction propels only a small amount of blood to the ventricles. 8.
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