Immune-Outline - LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY II(A IMHOLTZ IMMUNE P1 OF 5 1 Immunity a Ability to resist damage from foreign

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© LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. IMHOLTZ) IMMUNE P1 OF 5 1. Immunity a. Ability to resist damage from foreign substances (microorganisms, harmful chemicals). b. Categorized as being innate or adaptive. 2. Innate immune system a. Provides the basic means for the destruction of foreign organisms. b. Recognizes and destroys certain foreign substances, but the response to them is the same during each encounter. c. Consists of mechanical barriers as well as certain cells and chemical mediators. d. Main barriers are skin and mucosae. e. Cells and chemicals include granulocytes, monocytes, macrophages, antimicrobial proteins, etc. f. A characteristic response of the innate system is inflammation. 3. Adaptive immune system a. Consists of cells that attack particular antigens in a particular way. b. Improves and enhances the efficiency of the innate mechanisms and remembers the infection the next time it is encountered. c. Specificity (the ability to distinguish pathogens) and memory (the ability to respond more rapidly to a previously encountered pathogen) are characteristics of adaptive immunity. 4. Skin a. Repels pathogens in many ways. b. Highly keratinized, which provides a physical barrier to pathogens. c. Acidity of sweat can kill some pathogens. d. Sebum is bactericidal. 5. Mucous membranes a. Line the digestive, respiratory, urinary, and reproductive tracts - all of which are potential entrance points for pathogens. b. Often covered in sticky, pathogen-trapping mucus. c. Respiratory mucosa is also ciliated. Cilia sweep bacteria-laden mucus upward to the pharynx where it can be swallowed. Coughing and sneezing also assist in expulsion. 6. Body fluids also provide innate defense a. Tears, saliva, and urine wash away microorganisms. b. Saliva, intestinal fluid, and tears contain lysozyme, an enzyme that destroys bacteria. c. Acidity of certain mucosal secretions (gastric and vaginal) can impair pathogens. 7. Bacterial competition a. Growth of disease-causing organisms is inhibited by the growth of non-pathogenic bacteria in the gastrointestinal and urogenital tracts. These bacteria successfully compete w/ the pathogenic ones for nutrients and resources. 8. WBCs and derivatives a. The most important cellular component of the innate immune system. b. Can exit blood vessels (diapedesis), converge upon areas of infection/damage (positive chemotaxis) and move over, btwn, and through other cells. 9. Neutrophils a. Small phagocytic cells that are the first to enter infected tissues and function primarily as bacteria killers. 10. Macrophages a. Large phagocytic cells derived from monocytes. b. Free (able to move thru tissue spaces) such as the alveolar macrophages in the lungs or fixed (permanent residents of a particular organ) such as the microglia of the CNS. c.
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course LS 101 taught by Professor Abdul during the Spring '11 term at Montgomery College.

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Immune-Outline - LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY PHYSIOLOGY II(A IMHOLTZ IMMUNE P1 OF 5 1 Immunity a Ability to resist damage from foreign

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