RespiratoryOutline

RespiratoryOutline - LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY...

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© LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. IMHOLTZ) RESPIRATORY P1 OF 8 I. The main functions of the respiratory system include: a. Exchange of O 2 and CO 2 . b. Voice production. c. Regulation of plasma pH . d. Olfaction (sensation of smell) e. Infection (pathogen invasion) prevention. II. Respiration is associated with 4 processes: a. Pulmonary ventilation is the movement of air into/out of the lungs b. External respiration is the movement of O 2 from the lungs to the blood and CO 2 from the blood to the lungs. c. Gas transport refers to the mechanisms by which O 2 and CO 2 are moved thru the blood. d. Internal respiration is the movement of O 2 from the blood to the cell interior and CO 2 from the cell interior to the blood. III. Cellular respiration a. Breakdown of glucose , fatty acids and amino acids that occurs in mitochondria and results in production of ATP . b. Requires O 2 and produces CO 2 . c. Note that this type of cellular respiration, which requires O 2 , is known as aerobic metabolism ,” whereas breakdown of glucose that produces ATP but does not require O 2 is “ anaerobic metabolism .” IV. The structures of the respiratory system can be divided into the upper respiratory tract and the lower respiratory tract . a. Upper respiratory tract refers to the nose , pharynx , and their associated structures. b. Lower respiratory tract includes the larynx , trachea , bronchi , and lungs . V. The respiratory system can also be separated into a conducting zone and a respiratory zone . a. Conducting zone refers to structures that transport air but play no role in gas exchange. i. It includes: nasal cavity, nasopharynx , oropharynx , laryngopharynx , larynx , trachea , bronchi , and all bronchioles except for respiratory bronchioles . ii. These structures are involved in transporting, filtering, humidifying, and warming air. b. Respiratory zone refers to structures where exchange of O 2 and CO 2 occurs. i. Sites of exchange are known as alveoli (sing. alveolus ). ii. All respiratory zone structures contain alveoli and include: respiratory bronchioles , alveolar ducts , and alveolar sacs . VI. Structure of the respiratory zone a. Walls of the alveoli are made of simple squamous epithelial cells known as type I alveolar cells . b. Cobwebbing the external surface of the alveoli are pulmonary capillaries . These capillaries are lined by endothelium.
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© LECTURE NOTES – ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY II (A. IMHOLTZ) RESPIRATORY P2 OF 8 c. O 2 and CO 2 are exchanged as they pass through both sets of simple squamous epithelia (alveolar and capillary) as well as the basement membrane between the 2. i. This structure is collectively known as the respiratory membrane . 1.
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course LS 101 taught by Professor Abdul during the Spring '11 term at Montgomery College.

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RespiratoryOutline - LECTURE NOTES ANATOMY & PHYSIOLOGY...

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