heat - 50 Experiment VIII: Specific Heat and Calorimetry...

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50 Experiment VIII: Specific Heat and Calorimetry Goals Learn the experimental method of calorimetry Determine the specific heat of aluminum, brass, and steel with calorimetry Introduction and Background Heat and Specific Heat : The amount of heat required to raise the temperature of a solid body depends on its change in temperature ( T), its mass ( m ), and an intrinsic characteristic of the material forming the body called specific heat ( c ). The heat is calculated from the equation T cm Q = (8-1) The unit for c is thus heat per unit mass per unit temperature. The value of c does depend on the temperature. However, for the small temperature range we are interested in, it is a good approximation to regard c as temperature independent. Historically, heat Q is measured in terms of calories. The calorie was defined as the amount of heat required to raise the temperature of 1 gram of water by 1 o C from 14.5 o C to 15.5 o C at 1 atmosphere pressure. With this definition, the specific heat of water is 1.00 cal/g o C. The use of calorie began before it was established that heat is a form of energy and 1 calorie is equivalent to 4.18 J. Thus the standard unit for c in the SI system is J/kgK. However, since so much work involving heat has used the calorie and since the specific heat for water is unity when it is used, it remains a common unit today and we will use it in this lab. Calorimetry : When two bodies in an isolated system, initially at different temperatures, are placed in intimate contact with each other, in time they will come to equilibrium at some common intermediate temperature. Because of energy conservation, the quantity of heat lost by the hot object is equal to that gained by the cold object provided that no heat is lost to the surroundings. This is the basis for the method of calorimetry through mixture: A metal sample whose specific heat is to be
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heat - 50 Experiment VIII: Specific Heat and Calorimetry...

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