ch02 - CHAPTER 2 BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

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1 ISSUES TO ADDRESS. .. What promotes bonding? What types of bonds are there? What properties are inferred from bonding? CHAPTER 2: BONDING AND PROPERTIES
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2 Intro Roman poet Lucretius wrote in De Rerum Natura (On the Nature of Things) “…some things can be the one with other coupled and held, linked by hooks and eyes, as 'twere; and this seems more the fact with iron and this stone” - Lucretius (95-55 B.C.) In this Lecture we will discuss the nature of the “hooks”
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3 Atomic Structure (Freshman Chem.) atom – electrons 9.11 x 10 -31 kg protons neutrons A [=] atomic mass unit = amu = 1/12 mass of 12 C = 1.67 x 10 -24 g N av ( the Avagadro number ) – the number of atoms in the mole = 1 gram/1 amu = 6.023 x 10 23 Atomic wt = wt of 6.023 x 10 23 molecules or atoms 1 amu/atom = 1g/mol C 12.011 H 1.008 etc. } 1.67 x 10 -27 kg
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4 All atoms are composed of the same particles but have different properties => physical-chemical properties of elements are determined by their electronic configuration
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5 Atomic Structure Valence electrons determine all of the following properties 1) Chemical 2) Electrical 3) Thermal 4) Optical
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6 Nucleus: Z = # protons 2 orbital electrons: n = principal quantum number n=3 2 1 = 1 for hydrogen to 94 for plutonium N = # neutrons Atomic mass A Z + N Adapted from Fig. 2.1, Callister 6e. BOHR ATOM
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7 Bohr vs Wave Mechanical Model
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8 Electronic Structure Electrons have wavelike and particulate properties. This means that electrons are in orbitals defined by a probability. Each orbital at discrete energy level determined by quantum numbers . Quantum # Designation n = principal (energy level-shell) K , L , M , N , O (1, 2, 3, etc.) l = subsidiary (orbitals) s , p , d , f (0, 1, 2, 3,…, n -1) m = magnetic 1, 3, 5, 7 (- l to + l )
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9 Electron Energy States 1 s 2 s 2 p K -shell n = 1 L -shell n = 2 3 s 3 p M -shell n = 3 3 d 4 s 4 p 4 d Energy N -shell n = 4 have discrete energy states tend to occupy lowest available energy state. Electrons. .. Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister 7e.
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10 Number of Available Electron States
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11 Electron Configurations Valence electrons – those in unfilled shells Filled shells more stable Valence electrons are most available for bonding and tend to control the chemical properties example: C (atomic number = 6) valence electrons
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Electronic Configurations ex: Fe - atomic # = 26 valence electrons Adapted from Fig. 2.4, Callister 7e. 1
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This note was uploaded on 04/06/2008 for the course MSE 201 taught by Professor Brenner during the Spring '08 term at N.C. State.

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ch02 - CHAPTER 2 BONDING AND PROPERTIES ISSUES TO ADDRESS...

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