Family-work+policy+4-18-11 - Family/Work Conflict How has...

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Unformatted text preview: Family/Work Conflict: How has the government responded? Pregnancy Discrimination Family and Medical Leave Household Division of Labor Family and Work Conflict Women with children under 6 working: 1950 12% 1960 18% 1970 30% 1980 50% 2000 65% Pregnancy Discrimination: Forced Maternity Leave Prior to 1974: Forced leave before and after pregnancy – (5 months before; 3 months after) Cleveland Board of Ed v. LaFleur (1974) Pregnancy Discrimination: Pregnancy Disability Insurance Geduldig v. Aiello (1974) Four women disabled by pregnancy Four excluded from disability insurance coverage by their California employer coverage Pregnancy Discrimination : Pregnancy Disability Insurance General Electric v. Gilbert (1976) Disability insurance does not cover disabilities Disability related to pregnancy, miscarriage or childbirth. related Pregnancy Discrimination : Pregnancy Discrimination Act of 1978 Congressional act declaring that pregnancy Congressional discrimination is sex discrimination: discrimination “women affected by pregnancy, women childbirth, or related medical conditions shall be treated the same for all employment-related purposes…as other persons not so affected…” persons Pregnancy Discrimination: (1987) Cal. Fed. Savings v. Guerra California state law requires time off and job California protection for pregnant women ( 4 mo. unpaid) protection Question: Is preferential treatment—treating Question: pregnant women better than other employees— pregnant a form of gender discrimination? Pregnancy Discrimination: (1987) Wimberly v. Labor and Indus (1987) Relations Commission Relations Denied unemployment benefits to woman Denied who leaves work due to pregnancy who Pregnancy Discrimination: (1987) Miller-Wohl decision Woman fired from job for morning Woman sickness. sickness. Montana law requires “reasonable leave Montana of absence for pregnancy…” and requires company to reinstate her Pregnancy Discrimination: (1991) UAW v. Johnson Controls Company excluded all fertile women Company from hazardous work, but not fertile men from Family/Work Conflict Pregnancy Discrimination Law Family and Medical Leave Family and Medical Leave (1993) Family and Medical Leave Act: 12 weeks unpaid leave For mother or father For birth or adoption; illness of child, For spouse or parent, or worker’s own illness spouse 1 year minimum employment before year covered 1,250 hours/year minimum 1,250 Family and Medical Leave Limitations: Excludes employers w/ under 50 Excludes employees Excludes part-time/seasonal workers Excludes highest paid 10% of employees Whose leave would present a “serious Whose injury to the company” injury Family and Medical Leave Limitations: 42% not covered: businesses under 50 42% employees employees 34% of total workforce not covered Family and Medical Leave Limitations: Many can’t afford unpaid leave 64% of eligible employees who need it 64% didn’t take it because they couldn’t afford it it Options for paid leave?? Family and Medical Leave Sick leave or vacation time for family leave 1989 Paid holidays Paid Paid sick leave 1999 100% 68 % 89% 89% 56% 56% – Of all companies employing over 100 people Family and Medical Leave Unemployment Insurance Maternity/Paternity could be covered by UI At reduced % of wages Disability Insurance Private companies fund Private Or Universal, funded publicly through taxes Covering some reduced % of wages Family/Work Conflict Pregnancy Discrimination Law Family and Medical Leave Household Division of Labor Housework/Child Care Who does the housework? Women, though there has been a decline in Women, time spent doing housework in total…. time 1965 1998 Men 12 16 Women 40 40 27 Total 52 43 – (see Hesse-Biber, p. 178) Housework (2002/Married, Dual-Earner families) Women: 30 hours/week Meals Meals Dishes Dishes Cleaning Cleaning Shopping Shopping Laundry Laundry Outdoors Auto repair Auto Bills Driving others 8 5 6 2 4 2 .1 .1 1 2 Men: 18 hours/week Meals Meals Dishes Dishes Cleaning Cleaning Shopping Shopping Laundry Laundry Outdoors Auto repair Auto Bills Driving others 3 2 2 1 .7 .7 5 2 1 1 Housework and Wages Increases gap from .81/1.00 to .67/1.00 Disproportionate relation between # of Disproportionate hours spent in housework and wages hours Child Care Options Tax credits Direct subsidy by employers 1 in 25 employers provide direct subsidy **Some child care assistance** **Some 9% of gov’t employers 9% 8% of private co. over 100 employees 1% of private co. under 100 employees Flextime Flextime =vary the time to start or stop work 28% of all workers have flexible work hours Most Flexible: Lawyers and Judges; College and University Teachers; Math and Lawyers Computer Scientists Computer Least flexibility: Teachers, lower grades; Machine Operators Heath Services, Health Technologists ...
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