Cardiac Output

Cardiac Output - Cardiac Output

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Cardiac Output The following variables are measures of the capacity of the heart:  •    Stroke volume (SV)  is the volume of blood ejected by each ventricle during a single contraction.  •    Heart rate (HR)  is the number of heartbeats per minute.  •    Cardiac output (CO)  is the volume of blood pumped out of the right or left ventricle per minute.  CO = SV × HR.  Cardiac output varies widely with the health of the individual and the state of activity at the time of  measurement. Cardiac output in exercising athletes may exceed their resting cardiac output seven  times. The ratio between the maximum and resting cardiac output of an individual is the cardiac  reserve. Note that cardiac output changes when either stroke volume or heart rate changes. Stroke volume is regulated by the following three factors:  Preload is the degree to which cardiac muscle cells are stretched by the blood 
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Cardiac Output - Cardiac Output

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