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Proteins - bonded to an amine group(–NH 2 a carboxyl...

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Proteins Proteins  represent a class of molecules that have varied functions. Eggs, muscles, antibodies, silk,  fingernails, and many hormones are partially or entirely proteins. Although the functions of proteins  are diverse, their structures are similar. All proteins are polymers of amino acids; that is, they consist  of a chain of amino acids covalently bonded. The bonds between the amino acids are called peptide  bonds, and the chain is a polypeptide, or peptide. One protein differs from another by the number  and arrangement of the 20 different amino acids. Each amino acid consists of a central carbon 
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Unformatted text preview: bonded to an amine group (–NH 2 ), a carboxyl group (–COOH), and a hydrogen atom (Figure 5). The fourth bond of the central carbon is shown with the letter R, which indicates an atom or group of atoms that varies from one kind of amino acid to another. For the simplest amino acid, glycine, the R is a hydrogen atom. For serine, R is CH 2 OH. For other amino acids, R may contain sulfur (as in cysteine) or a carbon ring (as in phenylalanine). Figure 5. Examples of amino acids....
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