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ATP Production - of electrons or protons from a coenzyme is...

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ATP Production ATP is generated from ADP and phosphate ions by a complex set of processes occurring in the cell.  These processes depend on the activities of a special group of cofactors called coenzymes. Three  important coenzymes are:  nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide (NAD); nicotinamide adenine  dinucleotide phosphate (NADP);  and  flavin adenine dinucleotide (FAD).   Both NAD and NADP are structurally similar to ATP. Both molecules have a nitrogen-containing ring  called nicotinic acid, which is the chemically active part of the coenzymes. In FAD, the chemically  active portion is the flavin group. The vitamin riboflavin is used in the body to produce this flavin  group. All coenzymes perform essentially the same work. During the chemical reactions of metabolism,  coenzymes accept electrons and pass them on to other coenzymes or other molecules. The removal 
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Unformatted text preview: of electrons or protons from a coenzyme is oxidation. The addition of electrons to a molecule is reduction. Therefore, the chemical reactions performed by coenzymes are called oxidation-reduction reactions. The oxidation-reduction reactions performed by the coenzymes and other molecules are essential to the energy metabolism of the cell. Other molecules participating in this energy reaction are called cytochromes. Together with the coenzymes, cytochromes accept and release electrons in a system referred to as the electron transport system. The passage of energy-rich electrons among cytochromes and coenzymes drains the energy from the electrons to form ATP from ADP and phosphate ions....
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