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Unformatted text preview: Many proteins are immense in size and extremely complex. However, all proteins are composed of long chains of relatively simple amino acids. There are 20 kinds of amino acids. Each amino acid (see the left illustration in Figure 3 ) has an amino (—NH 2 ) group, a carboxyl (—COOH) group, and a group of atoms called an —R group (where R stands for radical ). The amino acids differ depending on the nature of the —R group, as shown in the middle illustration of Figure 3 . Examples of amino acids are alanine, valine, glutamic acid, tryptophan, tyrosine, and histidine. The removal of water molecules links amino acids to form a protein. The process is called dehydration synthesis , and a byproduct of the synthesis is water. The links forged between the amino acids are peptide bonds , and small proteins are often called peptides. All living things depend on proteins for their existence. Proteins are the major molecules from which All living things depend on proteins for their existence....
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Pesthy during the Fall '07 term at Texas State.
- Fall '07