Meiosis Most plant and animal cells are diploid. The term diploid is derived from the Greek diplos , meaning “double” or “two”; the term implies that the cells of plants and animals have two sets of chromosomes. In human cells, for example, 46 chromosomes are organized in 23 pairs. Hence, human cells are diploid in that they have two sets of 23 chromosomes per set. During sexual reproduction, the sex cells of parent organisms unite with one another and form a fertilized egg cell. In this situation, each sex cell is a gamete . The gametes of human cells are haploid , from the Greek haplos , meaning “single.” This term implies that each gamete contains a single set of chromosomes—23 chromosomes in humans. When the human gametes unite with one another, the original diploid condition of 46 chromosomes is reestablished. Mitosis then brings about
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course BIO 101 taught by Professor Pesthy during the Fall '07 term at Texas State.