The organelle that releases quantities of energy to form ATP (adenosine triphosphate) is the mitochondrion (the plural form is mitochondria). Because mitochondria are involved in energy release and storage, they are called the “powerhouses of the cells.” Green plant cells contain organelles known as chloroplasts, which function in the process of photosynthesis. Within chloroplasts, energy from the sun is absorbed and transformed into the energy of carbohydrate molecules. Plant cells specialized for photosynthesis contain large numbers of chloroplasts, which are green because the chlorophyll pigments within the chloroplasts are green. Leaves of a plant contain numerous chloroplasts. Plant cells not specializing in photosynthesis (for example, root cells) have few chloroplasts and are not green. An organelle found in mature plant cells is a large, fluid-filled central vacuole. The
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