455lec5 - Surface Waters: Rivers Main problem in TN is...

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Surface Waters: Rivers Main problem in TN is human impacts on water QUALITY not quantity Humans have greatly altered the PHYSICAL and CHEMICAL properties of rivers and creeks
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Physical Alteration of Rivers Activities such as dams, channelization and land use greatly accelerate erosion, sedimentation, flooding and degrade water quality By disturbing the “natural equilibrium” of the delicate hydrologic system
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The Watershed Dynamic As these streams flow downhill, they meet up with other streams becoming a bigger slower moving body of water with less gradient
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The smallest headwater streams are first order Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices, 10/98, by the Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG)."
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The union of two first order streams creates a second order stream Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices, 10/98, by the Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group (FISRWG)."
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Stream Ordering Headwater (1-3) Midreach (4-6) Lower reach (>6)
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Headwater streams are orders 1 – 3 Mid-sized rivers are orders 4 – 6 Large rivers are orders 7 – 12 About 85% of all stream miles in the U.S. are first to third order streams … close to 3 million miles. The Mississippi River is 12th order at its mouth.
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Change in energy as streams flow from headwaters to mouths
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Longitudinal Profile & Gadient
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07_07acd Drainage basin and cross sections at the headwater and near base level
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Stream Gradient The decrease in stream gradient and energy along a stream’s route to its mouth is accompanied with changes in habitat and ecological communities.
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Downstream Changes of a stream
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Stream Gradient Headwater streams are typically small with greater velocity and a steeper gradient
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  Describes general changes in  stream ecosystems from  headwaters to the mouth  Identifies connections between  the watershed, floodplain, and  stream systems  Places site in context within a  watershed,  helping define and  focus restoration goals River Continuum Concept Stream Corridor Restoration: Principles, Processes, and Practices, 10/98, by the Federal Interagency Stream Restoration Working Group”
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River Continuum Concept Large Rivers C C Headwaters P/R < 1 P/R < 1 P/R > 1 Midreaches Shredders Collectors riffles, pools, runs shoals, large pools shoals, lake-like Grazers Fish Diversity
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455lec5 - Surface Waters: Rivers Main problem in TN is...

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