455lect3 - The Carbon Cycle • Carbon enters the biota...

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Unformatted text preview: The Carbon Cycle • Carbon enters the biota through photosynthesis and then returned by respiration or fire. – When organism dies decomposition releases carbon. • Carbon occurs in the ocean in several forms – Dissolved CO 2 , carbonate and bicarbonate – Marine organisms and their products, CaCO 3 Carbon Cycle • Carbon moves through the atmosphere and food webs on its way to and from the ocean, sediments, and rocks • Sediments and rocks are the main reservoir So far, we have considered systems in a very general way Today: systems and the flow of matter = Reservoir = Flux of material A Bathtub an example of a reservoir Input Output When the flow of water into the tub equals the flow out of the tub, the water level does not change. Steady state conditions: input = output Residence Time The average length of time matter spends in a reservoir Residence time = reservoir size / input = reservoir size / output A Bathtub tub = 100 liters input = 5 liters/minute A Bathtub tub = 100 liters input = 5 liters/minute Residence time = 100 liters 5 liters/minute A Bathtub tub = 100 liters input = 5 liters/minute Residence time = 100 liters 5 liters/minute = 20 minutes Atm. CO 2 Output Photosynthesis 60 Gt(C)/yr Input Respiration & decay 60 Gt(C)/yr CO 2 reservoir size: 760 Gt carbon Atm. CO 2 Output Photosynthesis 60 Gt(C)/yr Input Respiration & decay 60 Gt(C)/yr CO 2 reservoir size: 760 Gt carbon Residence time: 760 Gt(C) = 12.7 yr 60 Gt(C)/yr Introduction: Introduction: Influence of Human Activities on the Global C Influence of Human Activities on the Global C Cycle Cycle Atmosphere Surface biosphere Fossil Fuel & Cement Land Use Change 5.5 5.5 1.6 1.6 (7.1) (7.1) Total Human Contribution 3.2 3.2 1.9 1.9 Net addition to atmosphere each year 2.0 2.0 Northern Forests Oceans (Gt C yr (Gt C yr-1-1 ) Total Sinks (3.9) (3.9) Reduce Emissions Increase Sinks Mitigation Mitigation Opportunities Opportunities Through Forestry Through Forestry • Protect forest stocks Protect forest stocks • Product substitution Product substitution (wood vs. energy intensive materials) (wood vs. energy intensive materials) • Renewable energy Renewable energy (bioenergy) (bioenergy) • Increase forested area Increase forested area • Increase forest productivity Increase forest productivity ( carbon density) ( carbon density) • Increase stores in wood products Increase stores in wood products ( production, recycling, and retention times) ( production, recycling, and retention times) Kaufman, Darrell S., et al. 2009. Recent Warming Reverses Long- Term Arctic Cooling. Science , September 4, 2009 Consequences…...
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course GEOL 455 taught by Professor Perfect during the Fall '11 term at University of Tennessee.

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455lect3 - The Carbon Cycle • Carbon enters the biota...

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