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AIRpresentationOctober305

AIRpresentationOctober305 - Effective Math Instruction for...

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1 Effective Math Instruction for Students with High Incidence Disabilities Joseph Calvin Gagnon, Ph.D. George Mason University
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2 Advanced Organizer: Math Session I) Educational Reform II) The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics Standards III) Characteristics of students with learning and emotional/behavioral disabilities IV) Direct instruction (di)
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3 Advanced Organizer: Math Session viii. Real world application and technology ix. Student grouping x. Graduated instructional sequence xi. Graphic Organizers xii. Strategy instruction xiii. Instructional adaptations
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4 Educational Reform: Standards-driven reform is the primary approach to assuring today’s high school graduates are internationally competitive Prompted by the public dissatisfaction and poor performance by U.S. students on international assessments (McLaughlin, Shepard, & O’Day, 1995), educators, curriculum specialists, and national organizations have focused on development of challenging standards for over a decade.
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5 Educational Reform: Ensuring all students achieve in math is a national priority (IDEA, 1997; No Child Left Behind Act of 2001) Success in math is considered a gateway to many educational and occupational opportunities (Jetter, 1993)
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6 Educational Reform: Recent legislation has assisted these efforts and ensured that students with disabilities are included, to the maximum extent possible Central to this notion of reform is the assertion that all students are, “entitled to instruction that is grounded in a common set of challenging standards” (McLaughlin, 1999, p. 10)
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7 Educational Reform: Rigorous standards are especially crucial for students with learning disabilities (LD) and emotional disturbances (ED), who are commonly included in the general education environment. These students have historically been provided a less rigorous curriculum with IEP goals that: Focus on computation (Shriner, Kim, Thurlow, & Ysseldyke, 1993) Have minimal linkage to long-term general education outcomes (Nolet & McLaughlin, 2000; Sands, Adams, & Stout, 1995; Smith, 1990)
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8 Educational Reform: The NCTM Standards are a critical component of the Standards-driven reform movement At least 42 states have used the Standards as a guide to development of mathematics standards Blank and Dalkilic (1992) (as noted in Thurlow, 2000)
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9 Characteristics of Students with LD: On average, adolescents with LD function 2.7 grade levels below their nonlabeled peers (Wagner, 1995) Secondary teachers have noted that many of their students experience difficulty in mathematics (McLeod & Armstrong, 1982)
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10 Characteristics of Students with LD: Adolescents with LD have difficulty with problem application and generally perform at the 5th grade level (Cawley & Miller, 1989) Secondary students with LD experience difficulties with a range of mathematics tasks, including: Basic skills (Algozzine, O’Shea, Crews, & Stoddard, 1987) Higher-level skills/concepts and problem solving (Huntington, 1994; Hutchinson, 1993; Maccini & Hughes, 2000; Maccini & Ruhl, 2000)
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11 Characteristics of Students with ED Students with ED are typically 1.8 grade levels
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