{[ promptMessage ]}

Bookmark it

{[ promptMessage ]}

Conf_mahdi_1 - mathematics Mahdi ABDELJAOUAD From...

Info icon This preview shows pages 1–14. Sign up to view the full content.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Some elements in the history of Arab  mathematics  Mahdi ABDELJAOUAD From arithmetic to algebra Part 1
Image of page 1

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 2 Summary Introduction  Domains studied by Arabs Arithmetic and number theory Algebra Conclusion
Image of page 2
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 3 Quick Chronology of Islam 622 : First year of Arabic Calendar 632 : Death of Mohamed, the Prophet 633 – 640 : conquest of Syria and Mesopotamia 639 – 646 : conquest of Egypt. 687 – 702 : conquest of North Africa. 701 – 716 : conquest of Spain (Andalusia). 640 – 750 : Reign of the Ommayads (Damascus) 762 – 1258 : Reign the Abbassids. (Baghdad) 1055 : Turks take over Baghdad 1258 : Mongols take over Baghdad. 1492 : Christians take over Grenada and arrive in America.
Image of page 3

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 4
Image of page 4
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 5 From 750 up to 900 
Image of page 5

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 6 From 900 up to 1000 
Image of page 6
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 7 From 1100 up to 1300 
Image of page 7

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 8 From 1300 up to 1500 
Image of page 8
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 9 Subjects studied by Arab mathematicians Geometry  : Thabit ibn Qurra – Omar al-Khayyam – Ibn  al-Haytham. Sciences of numbers   1. Indian numeration  : al-Uqludisi.   2. Business arithmetic  : Abu l-Wafa. 3. Algebra  : al-Khawarizmi  4. Decimal numbers  : al-Kashi 5. Combinatorics  : Ibn al-Mun c im Trigonometry  : Nasir ad-Dine at-Tusi Astronomy  : al-Biruni Science of music  : al-Farabi.
Image of page 9

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 10 Science of numbers « al – arithmétika » and « c Ilm al-hisāb » The first one is speculative or theoretical and is interested to abstract numbers and to pytagorical and euclidian arithmetic. The second one is active or practical and is interested to concrete numbers and to the needs of merchants.
Image of page 10
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 11 Speculative arithmetic Inspired from Aristotle philosophy Two approaches : 1. Euclid’s Elements Books VII – VIII and IX 2. Pythagoras through Nicomachus of Gerase’s Introduction to Arithmetic . Thabit ibn Qurra (d.901) Bagdad (a star worshipper)
Image of page 11

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 12 Types of active arithmetic 1 . Al-hisāb al-hawā’i (air calculus) Based solely on memory Rethorical calculus uses only words in the text and no symbols. It is digital : calculus uses fingers to compute and to do operations. It uses unitary and sexagesimal fractions How to solve problems: rule of three – algebra A chapter on geometric mensurations A great number of practical problems
Image of page 12
Palerme, 25-26 novembre 2003 13 Abu'l-Wafa (d.998) Bagdad Book on what Is necessary from the science of arithmetic for scribes and businessmen This book : ... comprises all that an experienced or novice, subordinate or chief in arithmetic needs to know, the art of civil servants, the employment of land taxes and all kinds of business needed in administrations, proportions, multiplication, division, measurements, land taxes, distribution, exchange and all other practices used by various categories of men for doing business and which are useful to them in their daily life.
Image of page 13

Info icon This preview has intentionally blurred sections. Sign up to view the full version.

View Full Document Right Arrow Icon
Image of page 14
This is the end of the preview. Sign up to access the rest of the document.

{[ snackBarMessage ]}

What students are saying

  • Left Quote Icon

    As a current student on this bumpy collegiate pathway, I stumbled upon Course Hero, where I can find study resources for nearly all my courses, get online help from tutors 24/7, and even share my old projects, papers, and lecture notes with other students.

    Student Picture

    Kiran Temple University Fox School of Business ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    I cannot even describe how much Course Hero helped me this summer. It’s truly become something I can always rely on and help me. In the end, I was not only able to survive summer classes, but I was able to thrive thanks to Course Hero.

    Student Picture

    Dana University of Pennsylvania ‘17, Course Hero Intern

  • Left Quote Icon

    The ability to access any university’s resources through Course Hero proved invaluable in my case. I was behind on Tulane coursework and actually used UCLA’s materials to help me move forward and get everything together on time.

    Student Picture

    Jill Tulane University ‘16, Course Hero Intern