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Unformatted text preview: School Crisis in California: How Can We Reshape our Children’s Future? University of California, Irvine Foundation Monday, November 16, 2009 Old Ways are Not Working Old Ways are Not Working
International Comparisons
• • 9yearolds • MATH ranked 12th of 25 • SCIENCE ranked 9th of 25 15yearolds • L ITERACY – ranked 15th of 29 • MATH – ranked 25th of 29 • SCIENCE – ranked 21st of 29 National Comparisons are Even More Troubling • 28% of CA students have Below 28% Basic Skills in Math – only 3 states Basic Skills perform more poorly perform 41% of CA students have only Basic 41% Skills in Math 25% of CA students are Proficient in 25% Math  Ranked 41st Math 5% of CA score at the Advanced 5% level Scores of Children of College Scores Graduates – CA ranks 37th Graduates <25% of CA students graduate from <25% high school college ready high Old Ways Are Not Working • • • • • P20: New Day, New Way
Technology and Media Early Childhood Post Secondary Families OutofSchool Time What is the University’s What is the University’s Role?
P Ed re uc par Le at in ad ion g er al s c oli P y Preparing New Teachers mt lu n cu me ri u r lop C ve e D Research Programs for Students ms ra og Pr for ing tic s ac er Pr ach Te World Class STEM Education World Class STEM Education
Projects That Advance Teacher Proficiency and Student Learning in Science and Mathematics
Michael E. Martinez, Ph.D. Professor of Education University of California, Irvine Two Challenges Two Challenges How Can We Build Excellence in: How Can We Do So Through the Two Primary Functions of the University:
– Teaching? – Research? – Teaching Science and Mathematics? – Learning Science and Mathematics? CalTeach CalTeach
A Program of Study Designed to Prepare Talented UCI Undergraduates to Become Excellent Middle and High School Science and Mathematics Teachers Two Pathways Two Pathways
Bachelors Degree in a STEM Discipline, and California Teaching Credential In Four Years Bachelors Degree in a STEM Discipline, Master of Arts in Teaching, and California Teaching Credential In Five Years How Is This Possible? How Is This Possible? Streamlined and highly innovative undergraduate coursework on teaching in the STEM disciplines. Effective crosscampus collaboration. A $2.5 million grant from the National Math and Science Initiative (NMSI), along with funding from the UC Office of the President. Dedication of UCI faculty and staff
– UCI is one of 13 demonstration sites nationally – School of Physical Sciences, Biological Sciences, ICS, Humanities, and the Department of Education CalTeach Meets CalTeach Meets Desperate Needs Many science and math courses are staffed by teachers who are poorly trained in the STEM discipline they teach. The University of California needs to do much more CalTeach, streamlined but intellectually rigorous, allows students to seek a teaching job immediately after graduating. – About 38% of STEM teachers earn their bachelors degrees at UC – Only about 11% earn their teaching credential at UC Other Contributing Factors Other Contributing Factors Strong program management Vigorous recruitment of undergraduates Ongoing support, including scholarships Launching of new science and math majors, and major concentrations, aligned with prospective careers in teaching Support from school district partners, including Santa Ana, Newport Mesa, Tustin, and Anaheim Spatial Temporal Mathematics at Scale Spatial Temporal Mathematics at Scale
An Innovative and Fully Developed Paradigm to Boost Math Achievement Among All Learners Traditional Instruction in Traditional Instruction in Mathematics Traditional math education relies heavily on symbolic notation in the form of numerals, operations, and equations, as well as on technical terminology. A SpatialTemporal Approach A SpatialTemporal Approach Instead, mathematical patterns can be represented as images or transformations of images. Patternfinding, experienced as mental imagery, is a natural ability of the human mind and its underlying neural circuitry. An Exciting Possibility An Exciting Possibility Spatialtemporal (ST) reasoning may be a highly intuitive way of learning fundamental math concepts. STbased mathematics offers the potential for effective learning among students who experience frustration with traditional ways of teaching math. ST Math may be a gateway to far larger numbers of students gaining high levels of mathematical proficiency, opening a pipeline of future scientists, engineers, and medical professionals. ST Math Software ST Math Software Designed to develop deep intuitive understandings of fundamental mathematical concepts: – Fractions, proportions, symmetries, and functions Video game metaphor – Universally motivating – Games With a Purpose (GWAP) Activities challenge children to apply spatial temporal skills to solve problems Prior Research Results Prior Research Results ST Math has produced substantial gains in mathematics achievement in comparison to control group students. Learning advantages tend to grow each year. Effects have been found on standardized tests of broad mathematics achievement, not only on ST concepts.
Martinez, M. E., Peterson, M., Bodner, M. Coulson, A., Vuong, S., Hu, W., Earl, T., & Shaw G. L. (2008). Music training and mathematics achievement: A multiyear iterative project designed to enhance students’ learning. In A. E. Kelly, R. A. Lesh, & J. Y. Baek (Eds.), Handbook of design research methods in education: Innovations in science, technology, engineering, and mathematics learning and teaching (pp. 396409). New York: Routledge. Findings From Previous Findings From Previous Research Our research shows that a large segment of students, perhaps most, can benefit from an approach to learning math that uses spatial temporal reasoning Spatialtemporal reasoning and representations might hold special promise for English language learners – By deemphasizing mathematical terms and explanations expressed in English A New Project: A New Project: ST Math At Scale An Innovative and Fully Developed Paradigm to Boost Math Achievement Among All Learners Funding – US Department of Education, Institute of Education Sciences (IES) – Four years (20092013) Participating Schools – 52 elementary schools in Orange County – Allied with the Orange County Math Initiative The Collaborating Institutions The Collaborating Institutions
University of California, Irvine Michael E. Martinez Peg Burchinal Lindsey Richland AnneMarie Conley Keara Osborne Melissa Kibrick Teya Rutherford Mind Research Institute Andrew Coulson Fran Antenore Abby Daniels Orange County Department of Education Stephanie Schneider Lauren Duran A New Paradigm A New Paradigm Prior research shows that a spatialtemporal (ST) approach to mathematics learning can open the gateways to STEM learning Now it’s time to put this exciting possibility to a rigorous test – To understand the nature and magnitude of causal effects through a largescale randomized experiment – To understand whether ST Math offers particular advantages to specific subgroups of learners – To understand what implementation factors moderate the effects of ST math on student learning Addressing Critical Needs Addressing Critical Needs The U.S. faces a crucial need for elevated achievement in math and, more broadly, STEM fields – To close the achievement gap – And to increase the pool of highlytrained scientists and engineers – Resulting in heightened international competitiveness These are longstanding valued goals – Now we need fresh thinking to achieve them – The UCI Department of Education is playing a leading role, locally and nationally What is school What is school readiness?
Greg J. Duncan
Department of Education University of California, Irvine What schoolentry academic, What schoolentry attention, social and emotional skills matter most for: School achievement High school completion and college enrollment Crime in early adulthood Kindergarten Skills and Behaviors Kindergarten Skills and Behaviors
Achievement Description: Concrete academic skills Example test areas or question wording: Knowing letters and numbers; beginning word sounds, word problems Kindergarten Skills and Behaviors Kindergarten Skills and Behaviors
Achievement Attention Description: Concrete academic skills Ability to control impulses and focus on tasks Example test areas or question wording: Knowing letters and numbers; beginning word sounds, word problems Can’t sit still; can’t concentrate; score from a computer test of impulse control Kindergarten Skills and Behaviors Kindergarten Skills and Behaviors
Achievement Attention Problem Behaviors Description: Concrete academic skills Ability to control impulses and focus on tasks i) Ability to get along with others ii) Sound mental health ) Cheats or tells lies, bullies, is disobedient at school i) Is sad, moody Example test areas or question wording: Knowing letters and numbers; beginning word sounds, word problems Can’t sit still; can’t concentrate; score from a computer test of impulse control Simple associations with later Simple associations with later achievement Simple associations with later Simple associations with later achievement Effects on later Effects on later achievement Effects on later Effects on later achievement Effects on high school Effects on high school completion Effects on high school Effects on high school completion Effects on arrests, Effects on arrests, incarceration Effects on arrests, Effects on arrests, incarceration Summary Summary Early reading and, especially, math matter the most for future school success Antisocial behaviors don’t interfere with early learning, but hurt in the long run Attention skills matter early but not later Mild mental health problems do not affect school success Implications Implications PreK curricula focused on early math skills should be an evaluation priority The Importance of The Importance of OutofSchool Time for Education & Youth Development
Joseph L. Mahoney, Ph.D. Associate Professor of Education University of California, Irvine Some Key Developmental Tasks Some Key Developmental Tasks for Children (ages 512)
• Basic School Achievement (e.g., reading, arithmetic) • Interact Competently with Peers and Adults • Resolve Conflicts Peacefully • Develop Health Promoting Habits Some Key Developmental Tasks Some Key Developmental Tasks for Youth (ages 1318)
• Construct PositiveAspirations for the Future • Form an Appreciation for Community and Work • Complete Formal Schooling / College • Become Productive Members of Society Academic Performance and Educational Attainment Afterschool Programs Afterschool Programs and achievement
Study of 651 Highly Disadvantaged Children in Connecticut 20022006
Source: Mahoney, Carryl, & Lord (2005) Comparison of Afterschool Comparison of Afterschool Arrangements: Parent, Program, Relative, Self Reading Achievement Scores Reading Achievement Scores at Followup
3rd Grade 2nd Grade Organized Youth Organized Youth Activities and Higher Education
Study of 695 Youth in North Carolina
Sources: Mahoney & Cairns (1997); Mahoney (2000); Mahoney, Cairns, & Farmer (2003) Followed from age 10 24 Enrolled in High School Enrolled in High School (Grade 11) PERCENT Youth Activity Involvement Enrolled in PostSecondary Education Enrolled in PostSecondary Education (Age 20)
PERCENT Youth Activity Involvement Antisocial Behaviors Afterschool Time and Delinquency: Afterschool Time and Delinquency: Peak Hours for Juvenile Violence
10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1 0 6am 9am 12pm 3pm 6pm 9pm 12am 3am 6am Percentage Time of Day
Source: Office of Juvenile Justice and Delinquency Prevention (1999) Afterschool Care and Substance Use Afterschool Care and Substance Use Self Care in LA and SD Counties – Twice as likely to use: Cigarettes Alcohol Marijuana Sources: Richardson et al. (1989) Adolescent Afterschool Activities Adolescent Afterschool Activities and Adult Criminal Arrests % Arrested # of Adolescent Afterschool Activities
Source: Mahoney & Eccles (2008) Physical Health Percentage of U.S. Youth who are Obese by age
Equal or greater than 95% age/sex CDC Growth Charts Source: Ogden et al. JAMA;195:154955, Hedley et al. JAMA;291:28472850 The Skinny on Obesity 66% of Americans are overweight or obese. Child obesity has more than tripled since 1963. In orange county 82,000 kids are obese and 36,000+ more are overweight. 75% overweight children will overweight adults. Obesityrelated deaths/year = 300,000 500,000 Causes of death:
– Obesity 16.5% deaths vs. Tobacco 18.1% deaths Obesity Status and Summer Obesity Status and Summer Activities % Obese Organized Activities Quality is Critical Quality is Critical
Poor Quality Programs Do Not Confer Benefits Program Staff are Key to Quality
– Typically receive little or no formal training UCI Certificate in AfterSchool Education: UCI Certificate in AfterSchool Education: 2 CORES
Foundations of OutofSchool Learning Child or Adolescent Development Physical/ Health ED Multicultural Educational Technology Arts Coursework & Fieldwork
Reading/ Literacy 3 ELECTIVES in 2 CATEGORIES Tutoring Math/ Science 10 Hours Observational Fieldwork 60+ Hours of Interactive Fieldwork ...
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