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Unformatted text preview: Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Mathematical Modelling and Challenges in Mathematical Modelling and Challenges in the Development of Drug Resistance the Development of Drug Resistance Mary Ann Horn Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Joint work with Erika DAgata, Harvard Medical School and Glenn Webb, Vanderbilt University 2 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Enterococci What are enterococci? Enterococci are bacteria found in the faeces of most humans and many animals. Two types of enterococci are associated with normal healthy people, Enterococcus faecalis and Enterococcus faecium. Photo credit: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center 3 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Enterococci Issues Associated with both community and hospital acquired infections Among the vanguard of antibiotic resistant bacteria Have acquired resistance genes to counter antibiotics that were once effective Photo credit: University of Oklahoma Health Sciences Center 4 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Nosocomial Infections What does nosocomial mean? Michael J. Berens, Chicago Tribune, July 22, 2002 Even a term adopted by the CDCnosocomial infection obscures the true source of the germs. Nosocomial, derived from Latin, means hospitalacquired . CDC records show that the term was used to shield hospitals from the embarrassment of germrelated deaths and injuries. 5 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics 6 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics What infections are caused by enterococci? Most common infections are urinary tract infections and wound infections. Infections threatening severely ill patients include infection of the bloodstream (bacteraemia), heart valves (endocarditis) and the brain (meningitis). Enterococci frequently colonize open wounds and skin ulcers. 7 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Antibiotic Resistance Most enterococci have inherent resistance to various drugs Cephalosporins Semisynthetic penicillinaseresistant penicillins Clindamycin Aminoglycosides Relatively resistant to other drugs Penicillin Ampicillin Tolerant to cellwall active agents Ampicillin Vancomycin 8 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics 9 Vanderbilt University Vanderbilt University Department of Mathematics Department of Mathematics Antibiotic Resistance (cont) Developed resistance Plasmidresistance Definition: A plasmid is an extrachromosomal ring of DNA...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course MATH 112 taught by Professor Jarvis during the Winter '08 term at BYU.
 Winter '08
 JARVIS
 Math

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