Unformatted text preview: Math Operational Terms
Math
University of Texas/TSC Brownsville Prepared by Dr. Elva Cerda Pérez Mathematical
Operational
Operational
Terms Patterns
Patterns A pattern is a model to be copied or
pattern
a design from which to work.
design Example: (Pattern) Source: New Concise Webster’s Dictionary, 1990 Edition Estimation
Estimation Estimation presents students with another
Estimation
dimension of mathematics; terms such as
about, near, closer to, between, and a little
less than illustrate that mathematics involves
more than exactness.
more Example: Without counting, estimate which
Example:
has less than 5 and which has more than 5.
has
5 Source: 1989 NCTM Standards: Grades K4 Standards 5: Estimation
http://standards.nctm.org/previous/currevstds/k4s5.htm Drawing Pictures
Drawing Drawing pictures are natural ways that
Drawing
students communicate their mathematical
investigations from early childhood through
2nd grade. Example: A child’s notation for 10½. Source: 1989 NCTM Standards: Grades K2 Communication
http://standards.nctm.org/document/chapter4/comm.htm Concrete Representations: Models
Concrete Representations are more powerful tools
Representations
for thinking; they make mathematical
ideas more concrete and available for
reflection. They support and extend
reasoning by helping students focus on
essential features of the mathematical
situation.
situation. Example:
Example: 1+1= 2 (Using cubes) + = Source: Principles and Standards http://www/nctm.org/tcm/2001/01/p288.htm Graph
Graph A graph is the set of all points that
graph
correspond to the ordered pairs that
satisfy that equation
satisfy
Example:
Example:
90
80
70
60
East
West
North 50
40
30
20
10
0 1st Qtr 2nd Qtr 3rd Qtr Source: Math Dictionary
http://kidsmath.about.com/.../bldictionary.htm?terms=math+dictionary 4th Qtr Numbers
Numbers Numbers are the total count of
Numbers
aggregated units or the symbol that
stands for this amount.
stands Example:
Example: (3) Source: New Concise Webster’s Dictionary, 1990 Edition Numeration
Numeration Numeration is the act, art, or method
Numeration
of expressing or reading off numbers
set down in numerals, especially
those written decimally.
those Example: Counting with an abacus. Source: Ato Z Dictionary Wysiwyg:/44/http://www.infoplease.com/ipd/A0562528.html Critical Thinking in Math
Critical Critical thinking is the central to inquiry and
Critical
application and should be interwoven
throughout the mathematics curriculum to
provide a context for learning and applying
mathematical ideas.
mathematical
Example: Try to make a hexagon with
Example:
different shapes of manipulatives.
different Source: Grades 68: Problem Solving
http://standards.nctm.org/document/chapter6/prob.htm Guessing and Checking
Guessing To form a judgment or estimate of (something)
To
without actual knowledge or enough facts for
certainty; to investigate in order to determine the
condition, validity, etc.
condition, Example: Guess how many bricks are there?
Example:
Then, count them to check if you were right.
Then, Source: Webster’s New World. College Dictionary. Fourth Edition. New York (1999) Manipulatives
Manipulatives Manipulatives are important tools in helping
Manipulatives
student think and reason in more meaningful
ways. By giving students concrete ways to
compare and operate on quantities this
contributes to the development of wellcontributes
grounded understandings of mathematical
grounded
ideas.
ideas. Example: The student will add 3 + 2 using
Example:
bingo chips.
bingo +
Source: Manipulatives: One Piece of the Puzzle
http://www.cetm.org/mtms/2001/02/p356.htm National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
Curriculum and Evaluation Standards
Curriculum The National Council of Teachers of Mathematics
The
Curriculum and Evaluation Standards provides
guidelines for excellence in mathematics education
and issue a call for all students to engage in more
challenging mathematics. It is intended to be a
resource and guide for all who make decisions that
affect the mathematics education of students in
prekindergarten through grade 12.
prekindergarten Example:
Example: As teachers, we have to make sure to
As
implement these standards in the curriculum.
We have to be sure that our students are
meeting the requirements that are needed to
achieve the skills in math.
achieve
Source: Principles and StandardsPreface
http://standards.nctm.org/document/prepost/preface.htm Mathematical Tables
Mathematical A systematic list of details, facts, numbers, etc.
systematic
systematically arranged in columns or rows.
systematically Example: Multiplication table x
0
1
2
3
4
5 0
0
0
0
0
0
0 1
0
1
2
3
4
5 2
0
2
4
6
8
10 3
0
3
6
9
12
15 4
0
4
8
12
16
20 5
0
5
10
15
20
25 Source: Billstein, R.et al. (1990). A Problem Solving Approach to Mathematics for Elementary School Teachers.
Ed. The Benjamin/Cummings Publishing Co., Inc. 4th ed. Drawings in Math
Drawings A picture of the study of the relationships
picture
among numbers, shapes, and quantities
made with a pencil, pen, or crayon.
made Example: A drawings of a geometric
Example:
shapes.
shapes. Source: Webster’s New World. College Dictionary. Fourth Edition. New York (1999) ...
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 Winter '08
 JARVIS
 Math, Mathematics education, NCTM, Numeration

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