RAPPSNCTM08

RAPPSNCTM08 - Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities The Role of Schema-Based Instruction Asha K Jitendra University of Minnesota

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1 Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities: The Role of Schema-Based Instruction Asha K. Jitendra University of Minnesota Jon Star Harvard University Paper Presented at the 2008 NCTM Annual Convention, Salt Lake City, UT
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2 Thanks to … Research supported by Institute of Education Sciences (IES) Grant # R305K060075-06) Project Collaborators: Kristin Starosta, Grace Caskie, Jayne Leh, Sheetal Sood, Cheyenne Hughes, Toshi Mack, and Sarah Paskman (Lehigh University) All participating teachers and students (Shawnee Middle School, Easton, PA) April 9, 2008
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3 Mathematical word problems Represent “the most common form of problem solving” (Jonassen, 2003, p. 267) in school mathematics curricula. Present difficulties for special education students and low achieving students Cummins, Kintsch, Reusser, & Weimer, 1988; Mayer, Lewis, & Hegarty, 1992; Nathan, Long, & Alibali, 2002; April 9, 2008
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4 To solve word problems, Need to be able to recognize the underlying mathematical structure Schemas Domain or context specific knowledge structures that organize knowledge and help the learner categorize various problem types to determine the most appropriate actions needed to solve the problem Chen, 1999; Sweller, Chandler, Tierney, & Cooper, 1990 April 9, 2008
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5 Focus on math structure helps … • Allows for the organization of problems and  identification of strategies based on the  underlying mathematical similarity rather than  superficial features “This is a rate problem” – Rather than “This is a train problem”   April 9, 2008
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6 April 9, 2008 Bridging the gap … Math education: A student-centered, guided discovery approach is particularly important for low achievers (NCTM) Special education: Direct instruction and problem-solving practice are particularly important for low achievers Baker, Gersten, & Lee., 2002; Jitendra & Xin, 1997; Tuovinen & Sweller, 1999; Xin & Jitendra, 1999
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7 Math Wars Math Wars April 9, 2008
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8 April 9, 2008 Our approach Collaboration between special education researcher ( Jitendra ) and math education researcher ( Star ) Direct instruction However, “improved” in two ways by connecting with mathematics education literature:
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9 April 9, 2008 Exposure to multiple strategies Weakness of some direct instruction models is focus on a single or very narrow range of strategies and problem types Can lead to rote memorization Rather, focus on and comparison of multiple problem types and strategies linked to flexibility and conceptual understanding Rittle-Johnson & Star, 2007; Star & Rittle-Johnson, 2008
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April 9, 2008 Focus on structure Avoid key word strategies in all means total, left means subtraction, etc. Avoid procedures that are disconnected
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course MATH 112 taught by Professor Jarvis during the Winter '08 term at BYU.

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RAPPSNCTM08 - Meeting the Needs of Students with Learning Disabilities The Role of Schema-Based Instruction Asha K Jitendra University of Minnesota

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