Connective Tissue 2009 - 1 Connective Tissue 2010...

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1 Connective Tissue 2010 Connective Tissue (CT) is one of the four basic tissues along with epithelia, muscle, and nervous tissue. CT is derived from the embryonic mesoderm layer, called mesenchyme. CT forms the support upon which all epithelial tissue rests and within which muscle and nerve tissues are embedded. CT also forms capsules around organs (e.g.: Glisson’s capsule around the liver) and the internal structure that supports the cells within organs. It is the place where inflammation and the immune response take place. Through CT all peripheral nerves and vessels pass. Almost all cells receive their nutrients by diffusion through CT and metabolic waste products also diffuse through CT. Bone and cartilage are special types of CT that supply mechanical support for the body. The bone marrow is another specialized type of CT as is adipose tissue which stores energy in the form of triglycerides. Repair of tissues following injury is another function of CT. To summarize: The CT has multiple functions: a. support; b. transport; c. energy storage; d. immune defense; e. blood formation; f. repair. CT consists of three elements: ground substance, fibers, and cells. Ground substance and fibers constitute the extracellular matrix. The proportion of these three elements varies greatly in the various types of CT. Usually, the cells of CT are widely separated within the matrix. This contrasts sharply with epithelium where the cells are all attached to one another. In epithelia tissues, the cells make up most of the volume and there is little extracellular fluid. In CT, it is the extracellular matrix (fibers embedded in the ground substance), which constitutes most of the volume. Look at the pictures attached (the pictures are taken from the website). In epithelial tissue, cells predominate. In CT, the extracellular matrix predominates. Remember, epithelial tissue is avascular. On the other hand, CT is highly vascular with the notable exception of cartilage which is also avascular.
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2 Both the fibers and the ground substance are synthesized by the CT cells (fibroblasts). The ground substance is usually not visible in routine histological slides, so it is important to remember that all the spaces between fibers and cells are filled in living tissue with this amorphous ground substance. Also, to visualize some of the fibers, special stains are needed. Ground Substance is the matrix in which the other elements (cells and fibers are embedded). In regular CT it consists mainly of water binding to glycosaminoglycans (GAGs), proteoglycans and glycoproteins. GAGs are long, unbranched polysaccharides with repeating disaccharide units which may or may not be sulfated. Depending on the sugar moiety and sulfate molecules, there are five types of GAGS. a.
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course SCIENCE 3254 taught by Professor Dr.shoupe during the Spring '11 term at Fort Valley State University .

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Connective Tissue 2009 - 1 Connective Tissue 2010...

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