fs201f09b - EMSE 201 Introduction to Materials Science...

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EMSE 201 — Introduction to Materials Science & Engineering 15 December 2009 Department of Materials Science and Engineering 1 of 12 Case Western Reserve University Name: SOLUTION Final Exam — 180 minutes; 200 points; 8 questions; 12 pages; 20% of course grade You may use a calculator, pencils or pens, eraser, and a straight edge. Handwritten notes on both sides of a single 8.5 ″× 11 sheet of paper are permitted. Please turn in your note page with your test. No other form of stored information is permitted. Write all answers on these pages; use the back if more space is needed. Partial credit will be given for correct set-ups and reasoning. Give units on numerical answers where ap- propriate and use the correct number of significant figures. Constants : Wiedemann-Franz constant, £ = π 2 k B 2 /(3 q e 2 ) = 2.445 × 10 -8 W K -2 Boltzmann’s constant, k B = 1.381 × 10 -23 J K -1 = 8.620 × 10 -5 eV K -1 gas constant, R : 8.314 J mol -1 K -1 Charge on an electron, | q e | = 1.602 × 10 -19 C Faraday’s constant, F = 96,500 C mol –1 1) Expanded from C&R problem 7.D1 & 7.D2: Gaseous hydrogen at a constant pressure P i will flow through a thin-walled nickel tube. Outside the tube, the hydrogen pressure will be constant at P o . If the thickness of the tube wall is x , the concentration gradient of hydrogen across the tube wall is given by dC H dx = A Δ x P i 1/2 P o 1/2 ( ) exp B RT (1) where T is the temperature of the tube and gas in Kelvin, and A and B are materials properties of nickel (assumed to be independent of temperature). The diffusion coefficient of hydrogen in nickel is given by D H = M exp Q RT (2) where M and Q are materials properties of nickel (assumed to be independent of temperature). How will the steady-state flux of hydrogen through the tube wall change (i.e., increase, decrease, or stay the same ) if the following changes are made and all of the other parameters defined above are held constant? Briefly justify your answers in terms of Fick’s first law. a) (4 points) Increase the wall thickness, x According to eq. 1, increasing x will decrease the concentration gradient ( 2 pts ). Per Fick’s first law, this will decrease the outward flux ( J = -D( dC H / dx ) ) ( 2 pts ). b) (4 points) Increase the pressure of hydrogen in the tube, P i According to eq. 1, increasing x will increase the concentration gradient ( 2 pts ). Per Fick’s first law, this will increase the outward flux ( J = -D( dC H / dx ) ) ( 2 pts ). c) (8 points) Increase the temperature, T Increasing the temperature will cause the exponents in both eqs. 1 and 2 to become smaller negative numbers ( 2 pts ). This will make both the concentration gradient ( 2 pts ) and the diffusion coefficient ( 2 pts ) larger numbers. Per Fick’s first law, each of these effects will increase the outward flux ( 2 pts ).
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