Exp2_Question_Final - EXPERIMENTAL PROBLEM 2 BIREFRINGENCE...

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Unformatted text preview: EXPERIMENTAL PROBLEM 2 BIREFRINGENCE OF MICA In this experiment you will measure the birefringence of mica (a crystal widely used in polarizing optical components). MATERIAL In addition to items 1), 2) and 3), you should use, 14) Two polarizing films mounted in slide holders, each with an additional acrylic support (LABEL J). See photograph for mounting instructions. 15) A thin mica plate mounted in a plastic cylinder with a scale with no numbers; acrylic support for the cylinder (LABEL K). See photograph for mounting instructions. 16) Photodetector equipment. A photodetector in a plastic box, connectors and foam support. A multimeter to measure the voltage of the photodetector (LABEL L). See photograph for mounting and connecting instructions. 17) Calculator. 18) White index cards, masking tape, stickers, scissors, triangle squares set. 19) Pencils, paper, graph paper. Polarizer mounted in slide holder with acrylic support (LABEL J). Thin mica plate mounted in cylinder with a scale with no numbers, and acrylic support (LABEL K). A photodetector in a plastic box, connectors and foam support. A multimeter to measure the voltage of the photodetector (LABEL L). Set the connections as indicated. DESCRIPTION OF THE PHENOMENON Light is a transverse electromagnetic wave, with its electric field lying on a plane perpendicular to the propagation direction and oscillating in time as the light wave travels. If the direction of the electric field remains in time oscillating along a single line , the wave is said to be linearly polarized, or simply, polarized. See Figure 2.1. Figure 2.1 A wave travelling in the y-direction and polarized in the z-direction. y A polarizing film (or simply, a polarizer) is a material with a privileged axis parallel to its surface, such that, transmitted light emerges polarized along the axis of the polarizer. Call (+) the privileged axis and (-) the perpendicular one. Figure 2.2 Unpolarized light normally incident on a polarizer. Transmitted light is polarized in the (+) direction of the polarizer. Common transparent materials (such as window glass), transmit light with the same polarization as the incident one, because its index of refraction does not depend on the direction and/or polarization of the incident wave. Many crystals, including mica, however, are sensitive to the direction of the electric field of the wave. For propagation perpendicular to its surface, the mica sheet has two characteristic orthogonal axes, which we will call Axis 1 and Axis 2. This leads to the phenomenon called birefringence....
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PHYS 0000 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '11 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.

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Exp2_Question_Final - EXPERIMENTAL PROBLEM 2 BIREFRINGENCE...

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