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Unformatted text preview: 39th International Physics Olympiad - Hanoi - Vietnam - 2008 Theoretical Problem No. 1 WATER-POWERED RICE-POUNDING MORTAR A. Introduction Rice is the main staple food of most people in Vietnam. To make white rice from paddy rice, one needs separate of the husk (a process called "hulling") and separate the bran layer ("milling"). The hilly parts of northern Vietnam are abundant with water streams, and people living there use water-powered rice-pounding mortar for bran layer separation. Figure 1 shows one of such mortars., Figure 2 shows how it works. B. Design and operation 1. Design . The rice-pounding mortar shown in Figure 1 has the following parts: The mortar , basically a wooden container for rice. The lever , which is a tree trunk with one larger end and one smaller end. It can rotate around a horizontal axis. A pestle is attached perpendicularly to the lever at the smaller end. The length of the pestle is such that it touches the rice in the mortar when the lever lies horizontally. The larger end of the lever is carved hollow to form a bucket. The shape of the bucket is crucial for the mortar's operation. 2. Modes of operation The mortar has two modes. Working mode . In this mode, the mortar goes through an operation cycle illustrated in Figure 2. The rice-pounding function comes from the work that is transferred from the pestle to the rice during stage f) of Figure 2. If, for some reason, the pestle never touches the rice, we say that the mortar is not working. Rest mode with the lever lifted up . During stage c) of the operation cycle (Figure 2), as the tilt angle α increases, the amount of water in the bucket decreases. At one particular moment in time, the amount of water is just enough to counterbalance the weight of the lever. Denote the tilting angle at this instant by β . If the lever is kept at angle β and the initial angular velocity is zero, then the lever will remain at this position forever. This is the rest mode with the lever lifted up. The stability of this position forever....
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This note was uploaded on 11/08/2011 for the course PHYS 0000 taught by Professor Na during the Spring '11 term at Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute.
- Spring '11