anthro10 concepts - Actual pattern synonymous with real...

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Actual pattern – synonymous with real pattern. Alternative pattern – one of the categories of the patterns of culture occurring when culture allows various types of behavior in meeting a particular situation and there is no difference in terms of value or frequency of the manifested behavior. Animalia – the kingdom where all animals belong. Animals are organisms that could not produce their own food. Anthropoidea – suborder of primates that includes monkeys, apes, and humans. Anthropology – the study of differences and similarities, both biological and cultural, in human populations. Archaeology – the branch of Anthropology that seeks to reconstruct the daily life and customs of peoples who lived in the past and to trace and explain cultural changes. Ardipithecus ramidus – the earliest known hominid. Artifact – material items that humans have manufactured or modified. Australopithecus – genus of Pliocene and Pleistocene hominids. Australopithecus afarensis – a species of Australopithecus that lived 4 to 3 million years ago in East Africa and was definitely bipedal. Australopithecus africanus – a species of Australopithecus that lived between about 3 to 2 million years ago. Australopithecus boisei – an East African robust australopithecine species dating from 2.2 to 1.3 million years ago with somewhat large cranial capacity than A. africanus. Australopithecus robustus – a robust australopithecine species found in South African caves dating from 1.8 to 1 million years ago. Biological Anthropology – the study of humans as biological organisms, dealing with the emergence and evolution of humans and with contemporary biological variations among human populations; also known as Physical Anthropology. Bipedalism – locomotion in which an animal walks on its two hind legs. Catarrhines – Old World primates; the group of anthropoids with narrow noses and nostrils that face downward. Chimpanzee – a Pongid that is the closest to humans genetically. Chordata – a phylum of metazoans consisting of animals with a centrally located nervous system. Coccyx – man's hidden tail, consisting of the four last caudal vertebrae at the bottom of the spinal column. Compulsory pattern – one of the five categories of the patterns of culture. In this pattern, culture allows only one type of behavior in a given situation. Cultural Anthropology – the study of cultural variation and universals. Cultural emphasis – according to Franz Boas, the number of synonyms of a particular concept is a marker that the said concept is important to a specific culture; in contrast, the absence or lack of synonyms of a particular concept means that the said concept is less important to the culture. Cultural patterns – socially defined limits within which individual variation takes place.
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