Ch. 9 Nutrition and You PowerPoint slides - Health Science

Ch. 9 Nutrition and You PowerPoint slides - Health Science...

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Unformatted text preview: Nutrition & You Nutrition & You Chapter 9 pages 255­278 November 3, 2011 Assessing Eating Behaviors Assessing Eating Behaviors What drives us to eat? Hunger ­ Appetite ­ learned psychological desire to eat Cultural and social meaning of food Habit or custom Emotional Comfort Convenience and advertising Nutritional value Social interactions Eating for Health Eating for Health Characteristics of a healthy diet Adequate Moderate Balanced Varied Nutrient dense Water Water Dehydration – abnormal depletion of body fluids The major component of blood Necessary for Electrolyte and pH balance Transporting cells and O2 Recommended amount – 8 glasses/day (64 ounces) 50­60% of body is water Protein Protein Second most abundant substance in humans Key to every cell, antibodies, enzymes, and hormones Transport oxygen and nutrients Role in developing/repairing bone, muscle, skin Vital for human life May need additional protein if fighting off infection, recovering from surgery or blood loss, recovering from burns Amino acids Proteins Proteins Building blocks of protein 20 essential amino acids must be obtained from food 11 non­essential amino acids produced by the body Link together to form Complete protein – supplies all essential amino acids Incomplete protein – may lack some amino acids, but these can be easily obtained from different sources Few Americans suffer from protein deficiencies Complementary Proteins Figure 9.3 Calculating Your Protein RDA Figure 9.4 Carbohydrates Carbohydrates Best fuel – provide energy quickly and efficiently Two types Simple sugars Glucose (monosaccharide) – most common form Fructose (monosaccharide) – found in fruits and berries Sucrose (disaccharide) – sources include granulated sugar, milk and milk products Complex carbohydrates (polysaccharides) Starches – from flour, pasta, potatoes Stored in the body as glycogen Fiber Fiber Fiber “Bulk” or “roughage” Indigestible portion of plants Insoluble Found in bran, whole­grain breads, most fruits and vegetables Found to reduce risk for several forms of cancer Soluble Oat bran, dried beans, some fruits and vegetables Helps lower blood cholesterol levels Helps reduce risk for cardiovascular disease Fiber Fiber Offers many health protections Colon and rectal cancer Breast cancer Constipation Diverticulosis Heart Disease Diabetes Obesity Most American eat far less than recommended Recommended is 20­30 grams and average is 12 grams Fats Fats Also called lipids Misunderstood but vital group of basic nutrients Maintain healthy skin Insulate body organs Maintain body temperature Promote healthy cell function Carry fat­soluble vitamins A, D, E, and K Are a concentrated form of energy Obtaining Essential Nutrients Obtaining Essential Nutrients Triglycerides make up 95% of total body fat Remaining 5% composed of substances like cholesterol Can accumulate on inner walls of arteries and contribute to cardiovascular disease Ratio of cholesterol HDL/LDL helps determine risk for heart disease Saturated vs. unsaturated fat Saturated mainly from animal sources, solid at room temperature Unsaturated generally come from plants and usually liquid at room temperature Obtaining Essential Nutrients Obtaining Essential Nutrients Avoiding trans fatty acids Created by process of making liquid oil into a solid Increase LDL levels while lowering HDL levels Higher risk of coronary and heart disease, sudden cardiac death Found in many margarines, baked goods and restaurant deep­fried foods Food labels listing no trans fasts can still contain less than 500 milligrams/serving Obtaining Essential Nutrients Obtaining Essential Nutrients Still need essential fatty acids Eat fatty fish Use healthier oils (including olive oil) Eat green leafy vegetables Walnuts, walnut oil Ground flaxseed Obtaining Essential Nutrients Obtaining Essential Nutrients Use moderation with fat intake Read food labels Use olive oil for cooking Avoid margarine with trans fatty acids Choose lean meat, fish, poultry Eat fewer cold cuts, less bacon, sausages, hot dogs, organ meats Choose nonfat dairy products Use substitutes for higher­fat products Think of your food intake as an average, over a day or two—if you have a heavy breakfast, eat a light Vitamins Vitamins Potent, essential, organic compounds Promote growth, help maintain life and health Two types Fat soluble – absorb through intestinal tract with fat A, D, E, and K Water soluble – dissolve in water B­complex and C Minerals Minerals Inorganic, indestructible elements that aid the body Macrominerals are needed in large amounts Vitamins cannot be absorbed without minerals Sodium, calcium, phosphorus, magnesium, potassium, sulfur, chloride Trace minerals are needed in small amounts Iron, zinc, manganese, copper, iodine Excesses or deficiencies of trace minerals can cause serious problems Determining Nutritional Needs Determining Nutritional Needs Recommended Dietary Allowances (RDAs) Adequate Intake Daily Values Recommended Daily Intakes (DRIs) Daily Reference Values (DRV) Reading food labels can help determine needs Reading a Food Label Figure 9.6 The New MyPyramid Food Guide The New MyPyramid Food Guide Replaced the food guide pyramid to account for varied nutritional needs throughout the U.S. population Emphasizes Personalization Gradual improvement Physical activity Variety Moderation Proportionality The MyPyramid Plan Figure 9.7 Serving Size Card Figure 9.8 Vegetarianism: Eating for Health Vegetarianism: Eating for Health MyPyramid Plan adaptable for a vegetarian diet Types of vegetarian diets Vegan Lacto­vegetarian Ovo­vegetarian Lacto­ovo­vegetarian Pesco­vegetarian Semivegetarian Vegetarianism: Eating for Health Vegetarianism: Eating for Health Reasons why 5­15% of the population are vegetarians Aesthetic Animal rights Economic Personal Health Cultural Religious The Medicinal Value of Food The Medicinal Value of Food Compelling evidence that diet may be as effective as drugs Functional Foods Antioxidants Carotenoids The Medicinal Value of Food The Medicinal Value of Food Folate Form of vitamin B Folate fortification 1998 Neural tube defects Heart disease Probiotics Found in fermented milk products Supplements Supplements Dietary supplements Products taken by mouth to supplement existing diets Includes vitamins, minerals, herbs FDA does not evaluate supplements prior to their marketing; companies responsible for own monitoring If in doubt about supplements, simply eat from the major food groups A multivitamin added to a balanced diet will generally do more good than harm Gender and Nutrition Gender and Nutrition Men and women have different needs Women have cyclical changes Men have more lean tissue (burn more) Changing the “Meat­&­Potatoes” Diet Changing the “Meat­&­Potatoes” Diet Reasons to change Heavy red meat eaters are five times more likely to get colon cancer, and twice as likely to develop prostate cancer Fruits and vegetables reduce stroke risk as well as risk for oral, bladder, and pancreatic cancers Cancer of the esophagus is one of the fastest rising malignancies in the U.S., among white men in particular Improved Eating for the College Student Improved Eating for the College Student Variety of challenges for healthy eating Eating breakfast and lunch vital for keeping energy up throughout the day Make lunch and bring it with you, including healthy snacks Will keep you from buying less healthy food on the run Limit sugar­heavy beverages and fried products Improved Eating for the College Student Improved Eating for the College Student Nutritional eating on a budget can be done Buy vegetables locally and in season Use coupons or shop at discount or bulk food stores Your city or county health department may have suggestions if you don’t have the funds to eat properly Questions? ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course HHPL 101 taught by Professor Long-white during the Fall '11 term at Howard.

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