Chapter 8_Alcohol and Tobacco

Chapter 8_Alcohol and Tobacco - Alcohol& Tobacco...

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Unformatted text preview: Alcohol & Tobacco Alcohol & Tobacco Chapter 8 October 20, 2010 Alcohol: An Overview Alcohol: An Overview 61 percent of Americans consume alcohol regularly. 25 percent abstain from drinking. People who begin drinking before age 15 are 4 times more likely to develop alcoholism than those who begin drinking at 21 Alcohol is responsible for more than 70,000 deaths per year among Americans Alcohol and College Students Approximately 63 percent of students have consumed alcoholic beverages in the past 30 days. Almost half are classified as heavy drinkers. Many students have a misperception about “normal drinking” behavior, and believe their peers drink more than they actually do. Alcohol: An Overview Alcohol: An Overview Binge Drinking A pattern of drinking alcohol that brings blood alcohol concentration (BAC) to 0.08 gram­percent or above Binge drinking is defined as consuming within 2 hours: 5 drinks in a row for a man 4 drinks in a row for a woman Alcohol: An Overview Alcohol: An Overview High­Risk Drinking and College Students Why is binge drinking the number one cause of preventable death among undergraduate students? Alcohol exacerbates their already high risk for suicide, automobile crashes, and falls. Customs, norms, and traditions encourage dangerous drinking. Drinking is heavily advertised and promoted on campuses. Students are more likely to engage in drinking games. Students are more vulnerable to peer influences and peer pressure. College administrators often don’t admit to a problem on campus. College Students’ Patterns of College Students’ Patterns of Alcohol Use Alcohol in the Body Alcohol in the Body Absorption and Metabolism 20% absorption occurs in stomach 80% absorption occurs in small intestine Factors that influence absorption: Concentration of the drink Amount consumed (more you drink the longer the absorption takes) Food in the stomach Mood (emotions such as stress and tension affect how long it takes for the stomach to empty into the intestine) Pylorospasm (spasm of valve) What Is a Standard Drink? What Is a Standard Drink? Alcohol in the Body Blood Alcohol Alcohol in the Body Blood Alcohol Levels Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) Ratio of alcohol to total blood volume The legal limit for BAC is 0.08 percent in all states. Both breath analysis (breathalyzer tests) and urinalysis are used to determine whether an individual is legally intoxicated, but blood tests are more accurate. Learned behavioral tolerance—though BAC may be quite high, the individual has learned to modify his behavior to appear sober Approximate Blood Alcohol Concentration Approximate Blood Alcohol Concentration (BAC) & the Physiological and Behavioral Effects Effects of Alcohol on the Body & Health Effects of Alcohol on the Body & Health Alcohol and Your Health Alcohol and Your Health Immediate and Short­Term Effects of Alcohol Reduces frequency of nerve transmissions Dehydration Water is lost from cerebrospinal fluid. Alcohol irritates the gastrointestinal system. Hangovers Headaches Fatigue Impaired mental functioning Congeners—forms of alcohol that metabolize more slowly than ethanol; more toxic and thought to play a role in the development of a hangover Be informed of drug and alcohol interactions Alcohol and Your Health Alcohol and Your Health Alcohol and Sexual Decision Making Alcohol lowers inhibitions, impairing the ability to make wise decisions regarding sexual activity 70 percent of college students admit to having engaged in sexual activity primarily as a result of being under the influence of alcohol. Less likely to use safer sex practices Risk of contracting sexually transmitted infections (STIs) or pregnancy increases among those who drink heavily Alcohol and Your Health Alcohol and Your Health Alcohol Poisoning Consuming large amounts of alcohol in a short period of time can be lethal. Alcohol alone or mixed with another drug is responsible for more toxic overdose deaths than any other substance. Deaths are caused by either central nervous system and respiratory depression or by inhalation of vomit or fluid into the lungs Signs include inability to be roused; weak and rapid pulse; unusual breathing pattern; cool, damp, pale, or bluish skin. Call 9­1­1 immediately. Alcohol and Your Health Alcohol and Your Health Long­Term Effects of Alcohol Effects on the nervous system (brain shrinkage, loss of some degree of intellectual ability) Cardiovascular effects (high blood pressure) Liver disease Cirrhosis (12 leading causes of death in the US) Alcoholic hepatitis (results from prolonged use of alcohol) Cancer Chronic inflammation of pancreas Impairs ability to recognize and fight bacteria and viruses Comparison of a Healthy Liver Comparison of a Healthy Liver with a Cirrhotic Liver Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Identifying a Problem Drinker Abuse interferes with work, school, and relationships. Alcoholism (alcohol dependence) results when personal and health problems related to alcohol use are severe, and stopping alcohol consumption results in withdrawal symptoms. Characterized by craving, loss of control, physical dependence, and tolerance Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism The Causes of Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Biological and family factors Alcoholism is 4 to 5 times more common among children of alcoholics Heredity accounts for two­thirds of the risk for becoming an alcoholic. Social and cultural factors Family attitudes Weakening of family links Combination of heredity and environment Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Costs to Society It is estimated that alcohol is directly or indirectly responsible for over 25 percent of U.S. medical expenses and lost earnings Cost of underage drinking is estimated at $61.9 billion annually. Includes crashes, violent crime, FAS, high­risk sex, poisoning, psychosis, and treatment for alcohol dependence Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Women and Alcoholism Female alcoholics approaching the rate of male alcoholics Women are addicted faster than are men. Risk factors include Family history Pressure to drink from peers Depression Stress Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol Abuse and Alcoholism Alcohol and Ethnic or Racial Differences Different minority groups have unique problems related to alcohol consumption and abuse. Alcohol most widely used drug among Native American populations Generally, African Americans drink less than white Americans, but are more likely to be heavy drinkers when they do drink. Latino men have higher­than­average rates of alcohol abuse and alcohol­related health problems than other groups. Asian Americans have a defect in the gene that manufactures alcohol dehydrogenase, leading to Recovery Recovery The Family’s Role in Recovery Intervention is a planned confrontation. Treatment Programs Psychologist and psychiatrists specializing in treatment Alcoholics Anonymous (AA) Private treatment centers Family, individual, and group therapy Recovery Recovery Relapse There is roughly a 60 percent rate of relapse (resuming drinking) in the first three months Many say they are recovering their whole life. To be effective, one must work on self­esteem and personal growth. Tobacco Use in the United States Tobacco Use in the United States Tobacco and Social Issues Single most preventable cause of death 438,000 Americans die a year 50 times that of illegal drug deaths Teen smokers = 27.5 percent of all smokers Advertising $36 million per day spent on tobacco­related advertising. Children and teens constitute 90 percent of new smokers. Tobacco Use in the United States Tobacco Use in the United States Financial Costs to Society $193 billion in annual health­related economic losses $95 billion in medical expenditures College Students and Tobacco Use Estimated 19 percent reported having smoked in the past 30 days in a 2007 study “Social smokers” are those who smoke when they are with people, rather than alone. What is really in a cigarette? What is really in a cigarette? Tobacco and Its Effects Tobacco and Its Effects Nicotine It is the main addictive substance in tobacco. Stimulates CNS. Stimulates adrenal glands. Increases production of adrenaline. Increases heart rate. Increases respiratory rate. Constricts vessels. Increases blood pressure. Tobacco and Its Effects Tobacco and Its Effects Tar and Carbon Monoxide Tar is a thick, brownish sludge, that contains various carcinogenic (cancer­causing) agents. Tar accounts for about 8 percent of tobacco smoke. 92 percent of the remaining tobacco smoke consists of various gases. The most dangerous gas is carbon monoxide, which is 800 times higher than the level considered safe by the EPA. Carbon monoxide causes oxygen deprivation in many body tissues. Cigarettes Cigarettes There are three different types of cigarettes: non­ filtered, filtered and clove. Non­filtered cigarettes are regular cigarettes. Filtered cigarettes have lower levels of hydrogen cyanide and carbon monoxide gasses, but are more harmful to the smoker. Clove cigarettes contain 40% clove leaves and 60% tobacco. These cigarettes contain higher levels of tar which allows the smoker to inhale the smoke more deeply. Cigars Cigars Cigars contain 23 poisons and 43 carcinogens. Smoking as little as one cigar a day can double your chances at getting cancer. Cigars are more addictive than cigarettes because one cigar contains the same amount of nicotine as several cigarettes. Smokeless Tobacco Smokeless Tobacco Chewing is placed between the gums and teeth for sucking and chewing. Dipping is another way of chewing tobacco. Dipping involves placing the tobacco between the lips and teeth for rapid nicotine absorption. Snuff is a powdered form of tobacco. This is usually inhaled through the nose or cheek. One major risk of smokeless tobacco is Leukoplakia. Leuokoplakia is a condition of white patches on the inside of the mouth caused by tobacco juices. Health Hazards of Smoking Health Hazards of Smoking Physiological Cardiovascular Disease Cancer Stroke Respiratory Disease Sexual Dysfunction Other Key Things to Know About Other Key Things to Know About Tobacco Use Mainstream Smoke Sidestream Smoke Breaking the Addiction Questions? ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course HHPL 101 taught by Professor Long-white during the Fall '11 term at Howard.

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