Promoting Healthy Behavior Change_Chapter 1

Promoting Healthy Behavior Change_Chapter 1 - The Basics of...

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Unformatted text preview: The Basics of Health Change Chapter 1 August 25, 2010 Putting Your Health in Perspective Putting Your Health in Perspective Health history – 1800s Health = absence of illness Common illnesses: bubonic plague, influenza, cholera Poor health often associated with poor hygiene – Late 1800s and 1900s Suspicion of the environment as a cause of sickness Putting Your Health in Perspective Putting Your Health in Perspective Health today – Mortality rates indicate people are living longer 77.8 years vs. 47 years – Morbidity rates indicate fewer people suffer from infectious disease Are people truly healthier? Putting Health in Perspective Putting Health in Perspective Dimensions of health include Physical Social Environmental Spiritual Emotional Intellectual The Evolution Toward The Evolution Toward Wellness Dimensions health and wellness – Physical Includes body functioning, physical fitness, Activities of Daily Living (ADL) – Social Ability to have satisfying relationships – Intellectual “Brain power” Ability to think clearly, reason objectively The Evolution Toward The Evolution Toward Wellness Dimensions of health and wellness – Emotional Self­esteem, self­efficacy – Environmental Appreciation of the external environment and one’s role – Spiritual Feeling as if part of a greater spectrum of existence The Healthy People Initiatives The Healthy People Initiatives Healthy People 2000 – 1990 – U.S. Surgeon General proposed a national health plan, for individuals and groups, with long­term objectives Healthy People 2010 – The plan has 28 focus areas representing public health priorities Examples include tobacco use, nutrition, access to care The Healthy People Initiatives The Healthy People Initiatives Healthy People 2010 – Two Broad Goals 1. Increase the life span and quality of life 2. Eliminate health disparities Health disparities: differences in the incidence, prevalence, mortality, and burden of diseases and other health conditions among specific population groups The Healthy People Initiatives The Healthy People Initiatives Contributors to Disparities – Race and ethnicity – Inadequate health insurance – Lifestyle behaviors – Sex and gender – Geographic location/transportation – Sexual orientation – Disability National Goal: Improving Health and National Goal: Improving Health and Reducing Disparities Health professionals and organizations – Beginning to work together to help people make healthier decisions about health. Goals – Include improvement in health insurance, better access to low cost, high quality healthcare, educational improvements, protective policies, and enhanced environments. Example: proposal to ban trans fat from restaurant food items; smoke free restaurants and bars Factors That Influence Health Factors That Influence Health Status A New Focus on Health Promotion A New Focus on Health Promotion Health promotion – Assists individuals and groups in making behavior changes Risk behaviors – Actions that increase the susceptibility to negative health outcomes Disease Prevention Disease Prevention Three types – Primary Actions to reduce risk (e.g. immunizations, exercise) before health problems start – Secondary Actions to stop health risks/problems before they lead to actual illness (e.g. smoking cessation class) Intervention – Tertiary Treatment/rehabilitation for an illness (after the fact) Changing YourHealth Behavior Changing Your Health Behavior Identify what is most important to you Factors influencing behavior change – Predisposing Life experiences, knowledge, cultural and ethnic heritage, current beliefs – Enabling Skills and abilities, physical, emotional and mental capabilities, community and government priorities and commitment to health – Reinforcing Presence or absence of support, access to education, health provider costs, community and environment resources and policies Factors That Influence Behavior­ Factors That Influence Behavior­ Change Decisions Changing Your Health Behavior Changing Your Health Behavior Beliefs – Appraisal of the relationship between some object, action or idea and some attribute of that object, action, or idea Attitudes – Stable set of beliefs, feelings, and behavioral tendencies in relation to something or someone Health Belief Model – Provides a means to show when beliefs affect behavior change Changing Your Health Behavior Changing Your Health Behavior Self­Efficacy – Belief that you are capable of achieving certain goals or of performing at a level that may influence events in life Locus of Control – External Someone else has power over my actions – Internal I have power over my actions Changing Your Health Behavior Changing Your Health Behavior Significant others as change agents – Family – Social bonds – Social support Motivation – Having an incentive or reason to make a change – Must be combined with common sense and realistic understanding of how best to achieve your goal Changing Your Health Behavior Changing Your Health Behavior Readiness – State of being that precedes behavior change and makes it possible Stages of Change (Transtheoretical Model of Health Behavior Change) – – – – – – Precontemplation Contemplation Preparation Action Maintenance Termination Choosing a Behavior Change Technique Choosing a Behavior Change Technique Techniques – – – – – Shaping (small steps) Visualization (imagined rehearsal) Modeling (learning by watching others) Controlling the Situation (situational inducement) Reinforcement Consumable reinforcers Activity reinforcers Manipulative reinforcers Possessional reinforcers Social reinforcers Choosing a Behavior Change Technique Choosing a Behavior Change Technique Self Talk – The way you think and talk to yourself Rational­emotive therapy – Cognitive therapy – Self­directed behavior change Blocking/thought stopping – Purposefully stopping negative thoughts – Concentration on positive steps Planning Behavior Change Planning Behavior Change Self­assessment – Antecedents – Consequences Analyzing personal behavior – Frequency – Duration – Seriousness – Basis for problem behavior – Antecedents Planning Behavior Change Planning Behavior Change Setting realistic goals – Evaluate why the change is important. – Think of potential setbacks/obstacles. – What programs/services could help you? – Are family and/or friends available for support? Decision making – Anticipate what might occur. – Be aware of alternatives. – Maintain values/beliefs. Common Barriers to Behavior Change Common Barriers to Behavior Change Improving Your Health Improving Your Health Healthy behaviors – Getting a good night’s sleep (minimum of seven hours) – Maintaining healthy eating habits – Managing weight – Participating in physical recreation activities – Avoiding tobacco products – Practicing safer sex – Limiting intake of alcohol – Scheduling regular self­exams and medical checkups Improving Your Health Improving Your Health Other actions – Controlling stressors – Maintaining meaningful relationships – Making time for yourself – Participating in a fun activity each day – Respecting the environment – Valuing each day – Being as kind to yourself as you are to others – Understanding the health care system and using it wisely What are additional factors that can be done that promote health? ...
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course HHPL 101 taught by Professor Long-white during the Fall '11 term at Howard.

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