Psychology, Chapter 1 Notes

Psychology, Chapter 1 Notes - Keitherra Graham 25 Aug 2011...

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Keitherra Graham 25 Aug 2011 PSYCH, Chapter 1 Outline What is Psychology? Psychology as a Science Psychology is the scientific study of a behavior and mental processes. o Includes: Nervous system Sensation and perception Learning and memory Intelligence Language Stress and Health Psychological disorders Ways to treat those disorders Sexual behavior Behavior of people in social settings like groups and organizations o Seeks to describe, explain, predict, and control the events it studies (behavior and mental processes) Theories propose reasons for relationships among events, as in perception of a threat can arouse feelings of anxiety. o Allow us to derive explanations and predictions o Combine statements about behavior, mental and biological processes What Psychologists Do Engage in research, practice and teaching o Pure (basic) research has no immediate application to personal or social problems. –Research for “its own sake,” sparked by curiosity o Applied Research is designed to find solutions to specific personal or social problems. Fields of Psychology: o Clinical: help people with psychological disorders adjust to the demands of life through interviews and tests Help clients resolve problems and change self-defeating behavior Largest subgroup o Counseling: use interviews and tests to define their clients problems o School: help school systems identify and assist students who have problems that interfere with their learning; “special classes”;
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o Educational: research theoretical issues related to leaning, measurement and child development; study how learning is affected by different factors o Developmental: study the changes (physical, cognitive, social and emotional) that occur across life spans; Try to sort out the effects of heredity and environment on development. o Personality: Identify and measure human traits and determine influences on human thought processes, feelings, and behavior o Social: concerned with nature and causes of individuals’ thoughts, feelings and behavior in social situations o Environmental: study the ways in which people and the environment, natural and human made, influence one another o Experimental- specialize in basic processes such as the nervous system , sensation and perception, learning and memory, thought, motivation, and emotion o Industrial: focus on the relationships between people and work o Human factors: make technical systems such as automobile dashboards and computer keyboards more user friendly o Consumer: study the behavior or shoppers in an effort to predict and influence their behavior o Health: examine the ways in which behavior and attitudes are related to physical health o Sport: help athletes concentrate on their performance and not on the crowd o Forensic: apply psychology to the criminal justice system Where Psychology Comes From: A History Aristotle: ancient Greek philosopher (384-322 BCE) o Human behavior, like movement of the stars and the seas, is subject to
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This note was uploaded on 11/11/2011 for the course PSYCH 101 taught by Professor Staff during the Fall '11 term at Howard.

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Psychology, Chapter 1 Notes - Keitherra Graham 25 Aug 2011...

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