Darfur#1A

Darfur#1A - 1. What is going on in Darfur? First of all,...

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What is going on in Darfur? First of all, there has been a great deal of conflict in Sudan for many decades. A big issue has been a Sudan Civil War going on between northern and southern Sudan because the two regions differ in religious and cultural ideals. Northern Sudan is characterized by “Arab and Muslim influences,” while the southern portion of Sudan is more “animist and Christian” (“Sudan Overview” 2011). Specifically, there has been tension between the nomadic Arab tribes and the stationary groups of farmers in the Darfur region of Sudan, over water supplies, land, and grazing rights, for many decades ("Q&A: Sudan's Darfur Conflict" 2010; MacFarquhar 2010). Severe droughts in the 1980s and the very small amount of rainfall thereafter has “sharpened the conflict between the two populations.” As the amount of precipitation has decreased, the population in Darfur has greatly increased, which has increased the scarcity of resources, and, subsequently, the amount of conflict (“Darfur conflict hurting environment” 2007). Many people in Darfur have felt that a great deal of oppression of black Africans in favor of Arabs has occurred in Khartoum, the capital of Sudan, which greatly contributed to the conflict in Darfur worsening as well. Due to this oppression, rebel groups, such as the Sudan Liberation Army (SLA) and Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) started to rebel and attack government targets in Khartoum in 2003. The government responded by mobilizing militias to defend itself ("Q&A: Sudan's Darfur Conflict" 2010; MacFarquhar 2010). Although the government of Sudan has admitted to mobilizing militias for self- defense, the government denies any ties with the Arab Janjaweed militia, who has been accused of “slaughtering men, raping women and stealing” from villages of black Africans, trying to do whatever they could to “drive out black Africans from large swathes of territory” ("Q&A: Sudan's Darfur Conflict" 2010). After conducting investigations, the U.S. came to the conclusion that genocide is occurring in Darfur. On the contrary, the United Nations asserts that there have been war crimes committed, but not genocide ("Q&A: Sudan's Darfur Conflict" 2010; MacFarquhar 2010). The violence escalated in 2010 when the Sudanese government rejected the demand that the Justice and Equality Movement (JEM) group be the sole negotiator for the rebels. This occurrence made the JEM group decide to discontinue all talks of compromise and peace, and instead, focus on reasserting itself militarily. About 2.7 million people have been left homeless by the conflict, and the UN estimates that around 300,000 have died. The problem is that it is very difficult to get an accurate count for the death toll reports, and it is hard to determine how many people have died from being killed in conflict versus those who have passed away from disease or starvation (“Darfur conflict hurting environment” 2007). 2.
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Darfur#1A - 1. What is going on in Darfur? First of all,...

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