bis2aWA3

bis2aWA3 - A Closer Look Two seemingly completely different...

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A Closer Look Two seemingly completely different things can have much in common. For example, Muller’s Ratchet is a downward spiral of fitness due to the gradual accumulation of mutations, also known as a “mutational meltdown”. The organism, usually single-celled and asexual, cannot repair damaged DNA and thus this mutated DNA gets passed. Fast evolution occurs with accumulated DNA that is passed on. On the other hand, Cancer is the outcome of mutations in a body that disrupt regular cell cycles. Cancer cells do not respond to communicative “stop” signals given by neighboring cells. This overgrowth of cells causes tumors which can get in the way of body processes. Normal cells stop when neighboring cells give out “stop” signals and when they are damaged; normal cells are eliminated by apoptosis. Cancer cells multiply in an unregulated manner and completely avoid apoptosis—thus spreading cancer cells throughout the body. Muller’s Ratchet for one-celled organisms and cancer are analogous. The two seemingly
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course BIS 2A taught by Professor Grossberg during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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bis2aWA3 - A Closer Look Two seemingly completely different...

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