study guide Bio chap50-55

study guide Bio chap50-55 - Chapter 50: An Introduction to...

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Chapter 50: An Introduction to Ecology and the Biosphere ecology: the study of interactions bt organisms and their environments The interactions bt organisms and their enviroments determine the distrubutions and abundance of organisms: -experiments and observations in small scale. Make up math equations for big scale hypothesis-but this is still based on the real facts which take extensive lab and field work -an enviroment includes Abiotic Components: nonliving chemical and physical factors, temp, light, water, nutrients Biotic Components: all the organisms that are part of any individual’s enviroment Ecology and evolutionary bio are closely related sciences: darwin, events in ecological time translates into effects over the longer scale of evolutionary time. Ecological research ranges from the adaptations of individual organisms to the dynamics of the biosphere: -ecology can be divided into 4 catagories: Organismal ecology: concerned with morphological, physiological, & behavioral ways in which individual organisms meet challenges of abio/bio enviro. The geo distribution of animals is often limited to the abiotic conditions they can tolerate Population ecology: population-a grp of individuals of same species. Studies factors that determine how many ind of particular species live in an area Community ecology: community-an assemblage of populations of many diff species in an area. Study of interactions such as predation, competition, and disease that affect community structure and function Ecosystem ecology: ecosystem-all abio factors in addition to communty of species and a certian area. Studies energy flow and cycling of chemicals among abio and bio components. A lake for ex. . Landscape ecology: deals with arrays of ecosystems and how they are arranged in geo region. Landscape/seascape contains many diff ecosystmes, materials and orgs. Studies interactions among juxtaposition of diff ecosystems. Biosphere: the global ecosystem, sum of all the planets ecosystems. Includes atmosphere. Ex of studies: how changes in atmospheric co2 [] affects world climate. Species transplants/dispersal: -when a species is transplanted to a place where it has never been. . Successful: when distribution is limited bc the area is inacessible, no time, etc Unsuccessful: cant live there bc physical or chemical factors -if successful, then the potential range of species is larger than actual range. -And they are limited in areas bc 1. predators, competitors (bio factors) etc or 2. abiotic factors like plants can stand cold temps etc. Problems with introduces species: -those african honey bees, zebra mussel
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The tens rule: 1 out of 10 introduced species are established, 1 out of 10 established become common enough of become pests. Humans abilty to cross oceans etc and take animals is ex of how we are changing the biosphere Behavior and habitat selection contribute to the distribution or organisms: -animals seem to “choose” where they want to live. . by the way they have evolved. We
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This note was uploaded on 11/10/2011 for the course BIS 2A taught by Professor Grossberg during the Spring '08 term at UC Davis.

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study guide Bio chap50-55 - Chapter 50: An Introduction to...

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